A Few Concluding Thoughts
There are other areas I could dive into to show the relationship between these two theologies/theologians (and I may do so in the future). Suffice to say, Moltmann’s influence on Gutiérrez (and other liberation theologians) is a noteworthy case of theological cross-fertilization between First-World European and Third-World theologians. Yet, Gutiérrez was wary of not taking too much from Moltmann and Europe, primarily seeing the benefits of hope theology in its critiques of the hyper-individualized gospel and our uber-capitalist society, whilst also coveting the stimulating effect Moltmann’s theology has on political consciousness and engagement.
An adequate theological stance on hope must rest upon sufficient grounds. The eschatological hope of Moltmann that is predicated on the resurrection of Christ and the everlasting faithfulness of God appears quite different to Gutiérrez’s more evolutionary optimism, that depends on an extrapolation of the present process, thus providing for a less sure hope. In the end, after briefly looking at the role that Marxism, political theology, and hope play in their respective theologies, one could almost say, to borrow a wordplay from Kayayan, that Moltmann’s theology of hope was effectively secularized in Gutiérrez’s liberation theology, turning it from a theology of anastasis (resurrection) into a theology of epanastasis (revolution)! Naturally, though, Gutiérrez’s revolution would be with bread and wine, not guns and bloodshed.