Greek

Answer Key for the questions in Greek: An Intensive Course (2nd rev. ed.) by Hardy Hansen and Gerald Quinn. If anyone spots what they think is a mistake in an answer, please leave a comment on the appropriate page. Thanks.

If anyone desires to compensate me for my efforts then please feel free to gift me a book from this Amazon Kindle wishlist.

I have provided the answers to all of the Exercise questions, as well as those for the Drill questions for the first four units. I may provide answers for the rest of the Drill questions in the future if I have time.

Unit 1

Answers to ‘Drill’ Questions

Section I

  1. τέχναι – feminine; nominative plural or vocative plural, “arts” or “skills” (as subject or predicative nominative). Singulars for both are τέχνη.
  2. ψυχήν – feminine, accusative, singular, “soul” (as a direct object). Plural is ψυχάς.
  3. τεχνῶν – feminine, genitive, plural, “(of/from) arts”. Singular is τέχνης.
  4. ἀγοράς – feminine, accusative, plural, “marketplaces” (as a direct object). Singular is ἀγοράν.
  5. ἀγορᾶς – feminine, genitive, singular, “(of/from a) marketplace”. Plural is ἀγορῶν.
  6. ψυχαῖς – feminine, dative, plural, “[by/with/to/for] souls”. Singular is ψυχῇ.
  7. τέχνῃ – feminine, dative, singular, “[by/with/to/for] arts”. Plural is τέχναις.
  8. χώρα – feminine, nominative singular or vocative singular, “land” or “country” (as subject or predicate nominative). Plurals for both are χῶραι.
  9. ἀγορᾷ – feminine, dative, singular, “[by/with/to/for] (the) marketplace”. Plural is ἀγοραῖς.
  10. τέχνας – feminine, accusative, plural, “crafts” (as a direct object). Singular is τέχνην.
  11. λόγων – masculine, genitive, plural, “(of/from) words”. Singular is λόγου.
  12. ἀνθρώποις – masculine, dative, plural, “”[by/with/to/for] men”. Singular is ἀνθρώπῳ.
  13. ἄνθρωπον – masculine, accusative, singular, “man” (as a direct object). Plural is ἀνθρώπους.
  14. λόγῳ – masculine, dative, singular, “[by/with/to/for] (the) word”. Plural is λόγοις.
  15. ἔργα – neuter, nominative plural and vocative plural (“works” as subject or predicative nominative), or accusative plural (“works” as a direct object). Singular forms are all ἔργον.
  16. ἀδελφοῦ – masculine, genitive, singular, “(of/from a) brother”. Plural is ἀδελφῶν.
  17. λόγον – masculine, accusative, singular, “word” (as a direct object). Plural is λόγους.
  18. δῶρον – neuter, nominative singular or vocative singular (“work” as subject or predicative nominative), or accusative singular (“work” as a direct object). Plurals are all δῶρα.
  19. ἀδελφοί – masculine, nominative, plural, “brothers” (as subject or predicate nominative). Singular is ἀδελφός.
  20. ἔργων – neuter, genitive, plural, “(of/from) works”. Singular is ἔργου.
  21. χώρας – feminine, genitive singular (“of/from a country”), or accusative plural (“countries” as a direct object). Plural genitive is χωρῶν and singular accusative is χώραν.
  22. δώροις – neuter, dative, plural, “[by/with/to/for] gifts”. Singular is δώρῳ.
  23. ἄνθρωπε – masculine, vocative, singular, “O man”. Plural is ἄνθρωποι.
  24. ἀδελφοῖς – masculine, dative, plural, “[by/with/to/for] brothers”. Singular is ἀδελφῷ.
  25. δῶρα – neuter, nominative or vocative plural (“gifts” as a subject or predicative nominative), or accusative plural (“gifts” as a direct object). All singulars are δῶρον.

Section II

  1. Ὁμήρῳ, Ὅμηρον.
  2. θεῷ, θεοί.
  3. νήσῳ, νῆσοι.
  4. βιβλίων, βιβλία.
  5. τεχνῶν, τέχναις.
  6. χῶραι, χωρῶν.
  7. ἀγοραῖς, ἀγοράς, ἀγορᾶς.
  8. ἀδελφῶν, ἀδελφούς.
  9. δώρου, δῶρα.
  10. ψυχαί, ψυχαῖς.

Section III

  1. a) ἀδελφός, ἀδελφοῦ, ἀδελφῷ, ἀδελφόν, ἄδελφε; ἀδελφοί, ἀδελφῶν, ἀδελφοῖς, ἀδελφούς, ἀδελφοί.
    b) ἀδελφός, ἀδελφοί, nominative; ἀδελφοῦ, ἀδελφῶν, genitive; ἀδελφῷ, ἀδελφοῖς, dative; ἀδελφόν, ἀδελφούς, accusative; ἄδελφε, ἀδελφοί, vocative.
  2. a) ψυχή, ψυχῆς, ψυχῇ, ψυχήν, ψυχή; ψυχαί, ψυχῶν, ψυχαῖς, ψυχάς, ψυχαί.
    b) ψυχή, ψυχαί, nominative; ψυχῆς, ψυχῶν, genitive; ψυχῇ, ψυχαῖς , dative; ψυχήν, ψυχάς, accusative; ψυχή, ψυχαί, vocative.
  3. a) ἡ χώρα, τῆς χώρας, τῇ χώρᾳ, τὴν χώραν, ἡ χώρα; αἱ χῶραι, τῶν χωρῶν, ταῖς χώραις, τὰς χώρας, αἱ χώρα.
    b) χώρα, χῶραι, nominative; χώρας, χωρῶν, genitive; χώρᾳ, χώραις, dative; χώραν, χώρας, accusative; χώρα, χῶραι, vocative.
  4. a) τὸ δῶρον, τοῦ δώρου, τῷ δώρῳ, τὸ δῶρον, τὸ δῶρον; τὰ δῶρα, τῶν δώρων, τοῖς δώροις, τὰ δῶρα, τὰ δῶρα.
    b) δῶρον, δῶρα, nominative; δώρου, δώρων, genitive; δώρῳ, δώροις, dative; δῶρον, δῶρα, accusative; δῶρον, δῶρα, vocative.
  5. a) ἡ ὁδός, τῆς ὁδοῦ, τῇ ὁδῷ, τὴν ὁδόν, ὦ ὁδέ; αἱ ὁδοί, τῶν ὁδῶν, ταῖς ὁδοῖς, τὰς ὁδούς, αἱ ὁδοί.
    b) ὁδός, ὁδοί, nominative; ὁδοῦ, ὁδῶν, genitive; ὁδῷ, ὁδοῖς, dative; ὁδόν, ὁδούς, accusative; ὁδέ, ὁδοί, vocative.

Section IV

  1. The brothers.
  2. On the island.
  3. On [the] islands.
  4. Arts.
  5. To the marketplace.
  6. Of the brothers.
  7. The soul of the brother.
  8. The soul of Homer.
  9. By/with work.
  10. The gifts of the brothers.
  11. The gifts, the ones of the brothers.
  12. The gifts to the brothers.
  13. Gifts, to the brothers.
  14. The gifts of the brothers, the ones for the men.
  15. The gifts to the gods, the ones of the men.
  16. The gifts for the brothers, the ones in the marketplace.
  17. Homer teaches the brother.
    [the definite article could also be functioning as a possessive, i.e. “his brother”]
  18. The brother sends the gifts to the islands.

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. Homer teaches the man.
  2. The brother of Homer teaches the man.
  3. The man teaches Homer.
  4. Homer teaches the men.
  5. Homer teaches the men in the marketplace.
  6. The brother of Homer teaches the men, [the ones] in the marketplace.
    [the extra article τούς puts emphasis on the fact that it is the men in the marketplace who are the ones being taught]
  7. In the marketplaces, Homer teaches the souls of men with [or “by means of”] books.
  8. The god sends a gift to the brother of Homer in the country.
  9. O Homer, the goddess sends gifts to the men in the country.
  10. The brother of the man sends the gifts of the gods out of the house onto the islands.
  11. The man on the island sends his brothers into battle.
  12. The brother of Homer sends a book from the marketplace onto the island.
  13. The brother sends gifts, the books of Homer, into the houses of men.
  14. The man teaches his brother by word and deed in the house.
  15. The man teaches his brothers by both word and deed.
  16. O Brother, even in battle, god teaches the men – the brothers of Homer.
  17. O Gods, Homer teaches the men on the roads with his words.
  18. Homer sends the gifts for the men into the country by the road from the marketplace.
  19. Homer teaches even his brother by skill.
  20. Homer teaches his brother in his skill by a book.
  21. Homer teaches his brother the skill by books.
  22. The god sends words into the souls of men.

Section II

  1. ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους παιδεύει.
  2. ὁ ἄνθρωπος τὸν τοῦ Όμήρου ἀδελφὸν πέμπει εἰς τὴν ἀγοράν.
  3. ὦ ἄνθρωπε, ὁ τοῦ Ὁμήρου ἀδελφὸς δῶρον τοῖς θεοῖς πέμπει ἐκ τῆς νήσου.
  4. τοῖς λόγοις ὁ Ὅμηρος παιδεύει τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἐν ταῖς νήσοις.

Unit 2

Answers to ‘Drill’ Questions

Section I

  1. Past Time + Progressive/Repeated Aspect = Imperfect Tense
  2. Future Time + Simple Aspect = Future Tense
  3. Past Time + Simple Aspect = Aorist Tense
  4. Present Time + Completed Aspect = Perfect Tense
  5. Past Time + Progressive/Repeated Aspect = Imperfect Tense
  6. Present Time + Progressive/Repeated Aspect = Present Tense
  7. Future Time + Progressive/Repeated Aspect = Future Tense
  8. Past Time + Completed Aspect = Pluperfect Tense
  9. Future Time + Simple Aspect = Future Tense
  10. Present Time + Progressive/Repeated Aspect = Present Tense

Section II

  1. παιδεύσεις (second person singular, “you will educate”; tense stem is παιδευσ- which denotes future tense; plural form is παιδεύσετε).
  2. ἐπαίδευσας (second person singular, “you educated”; tense stem is ἐπαιδευσ- which denotes aorist tense; plural form is ἐπαιδεύσατε).
  3. παιδεύεις (second person singular, “you are educating” or “you educate”; tense stem is παιδευ- which denotes present tense; plural form is παιδεύετε).
  4. ἔλυον (can be either first person singular or third person plural, “I was releasing” and “they were releasing”; tense stem in both cases is ἐλυ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form of first person singular is ἐλυομεν, and singular form the third person plural is ἐλυεν with the ν being removable).
  5. πέμψομεν (first person plural, “we shall send”; tense stem is πέμψ- which denotes future tense; singular form is πεμψω).
  6. ἔπεμψαν (third person plural, “they sent”; tense stem is ἐπεμψ- which denotes aorist tense; singular for is ἐπεμψεν).
  7. λύει (third person singular, “it is releasing”; tense stem is λυ- which denotes present tense; plural form is λύουσιν).
  8. πέμψουσιν (third person plural, “they will send” or “they will be sending”; tense stem is πεμψ- which denotes future tense; singular form is πέμψει).
  9. πέμπουσιν (third person plural, “they are sending” or “they send”; tense stem is πεμπ- which denotes present tense; singular form is πέμπει).
  10. ἔλυεν (third person singular, “it was releasing”; tense stem is ελυ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form is ἔλυον).
  11. ἐπαίδευον (can be either first person singular or third person plural, “I was educating” and “they were educating”; tense stem in both cases is ἐπαιδευ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form of first person singular is ἐπαιδεύομεν, and singular form of third person plural is ἐπαιδευεν with the ν being removable).
  12. πέμπομεν (first person plural, “we are sending” or “we send”; stem tense is πεμπ- which denotes present tense; plural form is πέμπω).
  13. ἔπεμψεν (third person singular, “it sent”; tense stem is ἐπεμψ- which denotes aorist tense; plural form is ἔπεμψαν).
  14. ἔπεμπεν (third person singular, “it was sending”; tense stem is ἐπεμπ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form is ἐπέμπεον).
  15. ἔπεμπον (can be either first person singular or third person plural, “I was sending” and “they were sending”; tense stem is ἐπεμπ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form of first person singular is ἐπέμπομεν, and singular form of third person plural is ἔπεμπεν with the ν being removable).
  16. παιδεύσω (first person singular, “I shall educate”; tense stem is παιδευσ- which denotes future tense; plural form is παιδέσομεν).
  17. ἐπαιδεύσαμεν (first person plural, “we educated”; tense stem is ἐπαιδευσ- which denotes aorist tense; singular form is ἐπαίδεσα).
  18. παιδεύετε (second person plural, “you are educating” or “you educate”; tense stem is παιδευ- which denotes present tense; singular form is παιδεύεις).
  19. ἐπαιδεύετε (second person plural, “you were educating”; tense stem is ἐπαιδευ- which denotes imperfect tense; singular form is ἐπαίδευς).
  20. παιδεύσετε (second person plural, “you will educate” or “you will be educating”; tense stem is παιδευσ- which denotes future tense; singular form is παιδεύσεις).
  21. ἐπαιδεύσατε (second person plural, “you educated”; tense stem is ἐπαιδευσ- which denotes aorist tense; singular form is ἐπαίδευσας).
  22. λύσομεν (first person plural, “we shall release”; tense stem is λυσ- which denotes future tense; singular form is λύσω).
  23. ἐλύσαμεν (first person plural, “we released”; tense stem is ἐλυσ- which denotes aorist tense; singular form is ἔλυσα).
  24. λύομεν (first person plural, “we are releasing” or “we release”; tense stem is λυ- which denotes present tense; singular form is λύω).
  25. ἐλύομεν (first person plural, “we were releasing”; tense stem is ἐλυ- which denotes imperfect tense; singular form is ἔλυον).
  26. οὐ πέμψεις (second person singular, “you will not send”; tense stem is πεμψ- which denotes future tense; singular form is οὐ πέμψετε).
  27. οὐκ ἔπεμψας (second person singular, “you have not educated”; tense stem is ἐπεμψ- which denotes aorist tense; singular form is οὐκ ἐπέμψατε).
  28. οὐκ ἔπεμπες (second person singular, “you were not sending”; tense stem is ἐπεμπ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form is οὐκ ἐπέμπετε).
  29. παιδεύουσι (third person plural, “they are educating”; tense stem is παιδευ- which denotes present tense; singular form is παιδεύει).
  30. παιδεύσουσιν (third person plural, “they are educating”; tense stem is παιδευσ- which denotes future tense; singular form is παιδεύσει).
  31. λύσει (third person singular, “it will release” or “it will be releasing”; tense stem is λυσ- which denotes future tense; plural form is λυσουσιν).
  32. ἔπεμπες (second person singular, “you were sending”; tense stem is ἐπεμπ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form is ἐπέμπετε).
  33. λύουσιν (third person plural, “they were releasing”; tense stem is λυ- which denotes present tense; singular form is λύει).
  34. ἐλύσατε (second person plural, “you released”; tense stem is ἐλυσ- which denotes aorist tense; singular form is ἔλυσας).
  35. λύεις (second person singular, “you are releasing” or “you release”; tense stem is λυ- which denotes present tense; plural form is λύετε).
  36. ἔλυες (second person singular, “you were releasing”; tense stem is ἐλυ- which denotes imperfect tense; plural form is ἐλύετε).

Section III

  1. Verb = ἐπαίδευες (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 2nd person singular).
    Translation = “O Homer, you were educating the men” (or “you used to educate”).
  2. Verb = πέμψω (future tense; indicative mood; active voice; 1st person singular).
    Translation = “I shall send Homer into the marketplace” (or “shall be sending”).
  3. Verb = ἐπέμψατε (aorist tense; indicative mood; active voice; 2nd person plural).
    Translation = “You sent the brother onto the island”.
  4. Verb = ἐπαίδευσαν (aorist tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person plural).
    Translation = “The gods educated Homer by their words”.
  5. Verb = λύσομεν (future tense; indicative mood; active voice; 1st person plural).
    Translation = “We shall release the brother”.
  6. Verb = ἐλύομεν (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 1st person plural).
    Translation = “We were releasing the men in the house”.
  7. Verb = παιδεύει (present tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person singular).
    Translation = “He educates the brother of Homer” (or “is educating”).
  8. Verb = ἐπαίδευεν (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person singular).
    Translation = “Homer was educating the brother” (or “used to educate”).
  9. Verb = παιδεύει (present tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person singular).
    Translation = “The deeds of the gods educate the men”.
  10. Verb = ἔπεμπεν (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person singular).
    Translation = “The goddess was sending her words into the soul of Homer” (or “used to send”).
  11. Verb = λύσουσιν (future tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person plural).
    Translation = “The gods will release the men on the island”.
  12. Verb = ἐπαίδευον (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 1st person singular or 3rd person plural).
    Translation = “I was educating the brother by means of skill” (or “used to educate”)
    Translation = “They were educating the brother by means of skill” (or “used to educate”).
  13. Verbs = λύειν (present infinitive active), and ε̉κέλευσεν (aorist tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person singular).
    Translation = “The god commanded Homer to release the men” (note that the present tense in the infinitive does not indicate time, but a progressive/repeated aspect).
  14. Verbs = λῦσαι (aorist infinitive active) and ε̉κέλευσεν (aorist tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person singular).
    Translation = “The god commanded Homer to release the men” (the aorist infinitive active indicates simple aspect).
  15. Verb = έπεμπες (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 2nd person singular).
    Translation = “You were sending the brother into the marketplace” (or “you used to send”).
  16. Verb = ἐπαίδευε (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person singular).
    Translation = “The books of Homer were educating the men” (“used to educate”).
  17. Verb = λύομεν (present tense; indicative mood; active voice; 1st person plural).
    Translation = “We are releasing the brothers” (or “we release”).
  18. Verb = ἐπαίδευσας (aorist tense; indicative mood; active voice; 2nd person singular).
    Translation = “You educated the brother by word and deed”.
  19. Verb = πέμπψουσιν (future tense; indicative mood; active voice; 3rd person plural).
    Translation = “They will send the brother out of the land” (“will be sending”).
  20. Verbs = ἐκελεύομεν (imperfect tense; indicative mood; active voice; 1st person plural), and πέμψαι (aorist active infinitive).
    Translation = “We were commanding Homer to send the book onto the island” (or “used to command”).

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. The gods were sending gifts into the land.
  2. Homer sent five books to the foreigners/strangers.
  3. Before the war, the men on the island shall send six messengers to the friends.
  4. Will you destroy even the friendship of the goddess? [notice I translated the και as “even”].
  5. We were dissolving the wars by either words or deeds.
  6. You taught the friends at Homer’s place the skill of words.
  7. On the one hand, we will send crowns to the strangers; to the friends, on the other hand, books.
  8. Did the strangers not release the friend in the house?
  9. By deed, not word, I was freeing the friends [the verb can also legitimately be translated as “they were freeing”].
  10. Before the battle, you commanded the friends to send gifts/bribes to the god out of the house onto the island.
  11. Stranger, will you not release the friend in the house?
  12. The books from the strangers taught the men in the marketplace – the friends of Homer.
  13. The six brothers were sending a crown of gold out of the land to Homer and the brother of Homer.
  14. On the one hand, Homer will teach the friends in the house well by words; the brothers, on the other hand, by deeds.
  15. We sent the messenger from the strangers away from the marketplace onto the island. For we were ordering the men on the island to dissolve the war.
  16. Brother, are you sending the animals to the marketplace or not?
  17. Even now Homer teaches the souls of strangers. For the gods were teaching Homer the skill.
  18. On the one hand, the gods will order Homer to send gold to the friends; on the other, crowns to the strangers in the country.
  19. The deeds of the gods in the country teach the men well.
  20. Will you send the brothers into battle?
  21. You were ordering Homer to send books to the islands. For you were teaching the men on the islands.
  22. On the one hand, the gods are dissolving wars; on the other hand, the men are sending brothers into battles.
  23. The goddess will order the men in the country to send gold or a crown to the friends.

Section II

  1. ἔπεμπες δῶρα ἐκ τη̃ς ἀγορα̃ς τοι̃ς θεοι̃ς νήσου.
    [also fine is παρὰ τοὺς θεοὺς]
  2. ἆρα ἐκελεύσατε τὸν Ὅμηρον λυ̃σαι τοὺς πέντε ἀνθρώπους ἐν τῇ οι̉κίᾳ ἢ οὔ;
  3. παιδεύσουσιν τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς λόγοις καὶ ἔργοις.
  4. ἡ θεὸς νῦν κελεύει τοὺς ἓξ ἀδελφοὺς πέμπειν χρυσὸν τοι̃ς φίλοις ἐν τῇ νήσῳ.
    [one could substitute πέμψαι for πέμπειν]
    [also fine is παρὰ τοὺς φίλους]
  5. τὰ δῶρα τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἔλυσεν τοὺς ἓξ ἀνθρώπους.

Unit 3

Note that the correct use of “may” and “might” is important in these answers. If the verb is a subjunctive the author wants you to translate it as “may”, but if it is an optative then you are to translate it as “might”.

Also, remember that the tense of a subjunctive or an optative (as well as an infinitive) does not indicate the actual time (e.g. the past) but only the aspect. The present tense shows progressive or repeated aspect (e.g. “that you may be educating”), while the aorist tense shows simple aspect (e.g. “that you may educate”), and the perfect tense shows completed aspect (e.g. “to have educated”).

Answers to ‘Drill’ Questions

Section I

  1. We have sent. Perfect indicative. Singular form is πέπομφα.
  2. They had sent. Pluperfect indicative. Singular form is ἐπεπόμφει(ν).
  3. You were sending. Imperfect indicative. Plural form is ἐπέμπετε.
  4. He has sent. Perfect indicative. Plural form is πεπόμφασι(ν).
  5. I sent. Aorist indicative. Plural form is ἐπέμψαμεν.
  6. He had sent. Pluperfect indicative. Plural form is ἐπεπόμφεσαν.
  7. To have sent. Perfect infinitive.
  8. He will send. Future indicative. Plural form is πέμψουσι(ν).
  9. He may be sending. Present subjunctive. Plural form is πέμπωσι(ν).
  10. You may send. Aorist subjunctive. Plural form is πέμψητε.
  11. You will send. Future indicative. Plural form is πέμψετε.
  12. We may be sending. Present subjunctive. Singular form is πέμπω.
  13. They will send. Future indicative. Singular form is πέμψει.
  14. They may send. Aorist subjunctive. Singular form is πέμψῃ.
  15. (a) I shall send. Future indicative. Plural form is πέμψομεν; and (b) I may send. Aorist subjunctive. Plural form is πέμψωμεν.
  16. I might be sending. Present optative. Plural form is πέμποιμεν.
  17. He might send. Aorist optative. Plural form is πέμψειαν.
  18. (a) To send. Aorist infinitive; and (b) He might send. Aorist optative. Plural form is πέμψαιεν.
  19. They might be sending. Present optative. Singular form is πέμποι.
  20. To be sending. Present infinitive.
  21. I had sent. Pluperfect indicative. Plural form is ἐπεπόμφεμεν.

Section II

  1. You send gold in order that we may be sending books. [present subjunctive active]
  2. You send gold in order that we may send books. [aorist subjunctive active]
  3. You will send gold in order that we may send books. [aorist subjunctive active]
  4. You sent gold in order that we might send books. [aorist optative active]
  5. You have released the brothers in order that he may send gifts. [aorist subjunctive active]
  6. You had released the brothers in order that he might send gifts. [aorist optative active]
  7. You were releasing the brothers in order that he might send gifts. [aorist optative active]
  8. He was educating the brothers in order that you might send gold. [aorist optative active]
  9. He educated the brothers in order that you might send gold. [aorist optative active]
  10. In order that you may be sending gold, he will educate the brothers. [present subjunctive active]
  11. We will not send gold in order that he may not send animals. [aorist subjunctive active]
  12. We were not sending gold in order that they might not be sending animals. [present optative active]

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. The people on the roads will sacrifice to the gods in order that they may stop the war.
  2. The people are sacrificing to the goddesses in order that they may stop the war.
  3. The strangers from the marketplace sent messengers in order that they might destroy the peace.
  4. I was sending messengers around the island in order that you [plural] might not be destroying the peace.
  5. They have sent gifts in order that we may free Homer.
  6. In fact [or “of course”], you [plural] are commanding Homer to write a book about the war in order that you may teach the brothers well. For they will guard the country.
  7. He sent gold to the assembly and the council in order that they might not dissolve the friendship.
  8. On the one hand, the gods did not guard Homer’s eyes; on the other hand, they have guarded well the books concerning the virtue of the men.
  9. On the one hand, by a word they had destroyed the peace; on the other hand, by a deed, they had not.
  10. Will you write five books concerning the sacrifices to the gods in order that we may send gifts to the gods?
  11. On account of the will of the gods we had stopped the war, but we did not send crowns to the marketplace.
  12. Since we guarded the messengers, who were from the strangers, they did not destroy the democracy.
  13. Has Homer educated the brothers with the skill concerning words in order that they may guard well virtue in battles?
  14. On account of [their] virtue we had sent crowns, prizes of victory, to the friends.
  15. Since we did not sacrifice to the god before the war, now, both on the island and in the marketplace, we have sacrificed in order that he may send virtue into souls.
  16. The people sent even the stranger out of the country into the island in order that he might not destroy the peace. For he had written six books concerning war.
  17. O Homer, on the one hand, you send a book instead of gold to the brother; on the other hand, to the god, a crown instead of an animal.
  18. You were sacrificing to the gods in order that they might teach the strangers, in the island, concerning virtue.
  19. He commanded the brothers to stop the war before their victory.
  20. The strangers will send gifts either to the council or to the assembly in order that you may not destroy the friendship.
  21. The books of Homer have taught the strangers.
  22. From the marketplace.
    At the side of the brother of Homer.
    Through the house.
    Beside Homer.
    Through the island.
    To have sacrificed.
    To have stopped.

Section II

  1. λελύκαμεν τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἵνα μη λύσῃς τὴν εἰρήνην.
    [Note that the present subjunctive λύῃς could be used instead of the aorist subjunctive, but I think the simple aspect of the aorist makes more sense here than the repeated/progressive aspect of the present. Also note that I translated “you” as 2nd-person singular instead of 2nd-person plural (λύητε/λύσητε), though this fine too considering the question is ambiguous in this regard]
  2. ἀλλὰ ἐπεπόμφης ἆθλα τῷ Ὁμήρῳ ἵνα παιδεύοι τὸν ἀδελφόν.
    [Note that the aorist optative παιδεύσαι could be used instead of the present optative, but I prefer the progressive/repeated aspect of the latter]
  3. ἐγεγράφειν βιβλίον περὶ εἰρήνης ἳνα παύσαιμεν πολέμους.

Also, for each of these three answers ὡς or ὅπως can be used instead of ἵνα.

Unit 4

Answers to ‘Drill’ Questions

Note: ὦ is used with the vocative (see pg. 31).

Section I

  1. ταῖς θαλάτταις (feminine, dative, plural); “to/for/with/by the seas”.
    singular: τῇ θαλάττῃ
  2. τὴν θάλατταν (feminine, accusative, singular); “the sea” as a direct object (i.e. “the sea” receives the action of a verb).
    plural: τάς θαλλάττας
  3. (a) τῆς γεφύρας (feminine, genitive, singular), “of the bridge” (e.g. “the steel of the bridge”).
    plural: τῶν γεφυρῶν
    (b) τάς γεφύρας (feminine, accusative, plural), “the bridges” as a direct object.
    singular: τὴν γέφυραν
  4. (a) ἡ θάλαττα (feminine, nominative, singular), “sea” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    plural: αἱ θάλατται
    (b) ὦ θάλαττα (feminine, vocative, singular), “sea” being addressed directly (e.g. “O Sea, why dost thou thrash about?”).
    plural: ὦ θάλατται
  5. ὁ πολίτης (masculine, nominative, singular), “citizen” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    plural: οἱ πολῖται
  6. ὦ πολῖτα (masculine, vocative, singular), “citizen” being addressed directly.
    plural: ὦ πολῖται
  7. τὸν νεανίαν (masculine, accusative, singular), “the young man” as a direct object.
    plural: τοὺς νεανίας
  8. τοῦ πολίτου (masculine, genitive, singular), “of the citizen”.
    plural: τῶν πολιτῶν
  9. τῷ ποιητῇ (masculine, dative, singular), “to/for/with/by the poet”.
    plural: τοῖς πολίταις
  10. τοῖς νεανίαις (masculine, dative, plural), “to/for/with/by the young men”.
    singular: τῷ νεανίᾳ
  11. (a) οἱ πολῖται (masculine, nominative, plural), “citizens” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    singular: ὁ πολίτης
    (b) ὦ πολῖται (masculine, vocative, plural), “citizens” being addressed directly.
    singular: ὦ πολῖτα
  12. τοῦ νεανίου (masculine, genitive, singular), “of the young man”.
    plural: τῶν νεανιῶν
  13. τοὺς ποιητάς (masculine, accusative, plural), “the poets” as a direct object.
    singular: τὸν ποιητήν
  14. (a) οἱ νεανίαι (masculine, nominative, plural), “the young men” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    singular: ὁ νεανίας
    (b) ὦ νεανίαι (masculine, vocative, plural), “the young men” being addressed directly.
    singular: ὦ νεανία
  15. ὦ νεανία (masculine, vocative, singular), “the young man” being addressed directly.
    plural: ὦ νεανίαι

Section II

  1. The evil brothers.
    Singular: ὁ κάκος ἄδελφος
  2. The evil citizens.
    Singular: ὁ κάκος πολίτης
  3. To (for/with/by) the evil souls.
    Singular: τῇ κακὴ ψυχῇ
  4. To (for/with/by) the unjust souls.
    Singular: τῇ ἀδίκῳ ψυχῇ
  5. The poets, the evil ones. [The evil poets]
    Singular: τὸν ποιητὴν τὸν ἄδικον
  6. A soul, the worthy one. [The worthy soul]
    Plural: ψύχαί αί ἄξιαι
  7. To (for/with/by) the unjust citizen.
    Plural: τοῖς ἀδίκοις πολίταις
  8. Of the worthy souls.
    Singular: τῆς ἀξίας ψυχῆς
  9. The works, the evil ones. [The evil work]
    Singular: τὸ ἔργον τὸ κακὸν
  10. To (for/with/by) the unjust young man.
    Plural: τοῖς ἀδίκοις νεανίαις
  11. The worthy sea.
    Plural: τάς ἀξίας θαλάττας
  12. The bridge, the bad one. [The bad bridge]
    Plural: αἱ γέφυραι αἱ κακαί

Section III

  1. The evil brother
  2. The evil brother
  3. The brother is evil.
  4. The brother is evil.
  5. The evil brother
  6. The unjust soul of the brother
  7. The soul of the brother is unjust.
  8. The soul of the brother is unjust.
  9. The soul is worthy.
  10. The soul is worthy.
  11. The unjust work
  12. The work is unjust.

Section IV

  1. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If she wins (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: She will celebrate (future indicative).
  2. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he should win (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: He would celebrate (optative + ἄν).
  3. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If she wins (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: She celebrates (present indicative).
  4. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he won (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: He celebrated (imperfect indicative).
  5. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he were winning (εἰ + imperfect indicative).
    Apodosis: He would be celebrating (imperfect indicative + ἄν).
  6. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If she had won (εἰ + aorist indicative).
    Apodosis: She would have celebrated (aorist indicative + ἄν).
  7. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he is late (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: He loses an hour’s pay (present indicative).
  8. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If a letter was wrongly addressed (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: I returned it (imperfect indicative).
  9. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If you do that (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: You will be sorry (future indicative).
  10. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If you were having fun (εἰ + imperfect indicative).
    Apodosis: You would not be so anxious to leave (imperfect indicative + ἄν).
  11. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If I had finished on time (εἰ + aorist indicative).
    Apodosis: I would have gotten a bonus (aorist indicative + ἄν).
  12. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If it should snow tomorrow (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: What would you do (optative + ἄν).

Section V

  1. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If you sacrifice to the gods, they will send gifts.
  2. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If you should sacrifice to the gods, they would send gifts.
  3. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    If you sacrificed to the gods, they sent gifts.
  4. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    If you sacrifice to the gods, they send gifts.
  5. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If you had sacrificed to the gods, they would have sent gifts.
  6. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If you were sacrificing to the gods, they would be sending gifts.
  7. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If I do not guard the brothers, they will destroy the democracy.
  8. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If I were guarding the brothers, they would not be destroying the democracy.
  9. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    If I do not guard the brothers, they destroy the democracy.
  10. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If I had not guarded the brothers, they would have destroyed the democracy.
  11. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If I should not guard the brothers, they would destroy the democracy.
  12. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    If I did not guard the brothers, they destroyed the democracy.
    [Remember that the present optative only conveys progressive/repeated aspect, not present time. Thus, the answer could be rendered as follows: If I did not (ever) guard the brothers, they (always) destroyed the democracy].

Note: even though questions 11 and 12 both have the exact same protasis given in Greek, due to the differing apodoses given, it is translated differently in English.

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Note: on page 102 the authors say that ουκ εθελω can be translated as “refuse” and so I have chosen that option in the answers below.

Section I

  1. If the muses teach the good poet well, then he will write a fine book concerning the sacrifices in the marketplace.
  2. On the one hand, the battle is bad to the soldiers; on the other hand, victory is good.
  3. O friend soldier, if you were guarding the land with the just men, the young men from the island would not be destroying the peace.
  4. Have you stationed the find and good hoplites at the bridge in order that they may guard the country after the battle?
  5. If the poets wrote books concerning justice, to the muses, the goddesses of poets, that they sacrificed. For the poets are just.
  6. If you should destroy the democracy, O bad citizens, you would destroy even the peace in the beautiful islands.
  7. If you had sent the soldiers into the battle with the weapons, we would have stationed the young men in the marketplace in order that they might guard the houses.
  8. On the one hand, the soul of the young man is just; on the other hand, the soul of the soldier is unjust.
  9. I sacrifice to the beautiful goddess, if you send a good animal.
  10. If we send bad men into war, we will bury good men.
  11. The good and just citizens are worthy of rule. For they want to stop the bad war.
  12. The battle is the fate of the soldier.
  13. In order that he might write a good book, the just poet was sacrificing good animals to the gods.
  14. If the beloved Homer had refused to be sacrificing to the goddess, he would not have written a good book concerning men of virtue.
  15. O friends, if on account of the will of the god we destroy the democracy, we will send the citizens unworthy of rule out of the country to the strangers on the island.
  16. Good, of course, is the day of victory to the men.
  17. If the works of the gods should teach the young man in the house, he would refuse to send weapons to the unjust soldiers.
  18. If the god commanded the beloved poet to be teaching the young men, he sacrificed to the muse.
  19. Since the six messengers from the strangers sent gifts to the council and the assembly, the people refuse to station the good hoplites for battle.
  20. O young man, if you were sending gold or a crown to the hoplites worthy of a prize, they would not be destroying the peace.
  21. If you do not stop the battle, we will send good hoplites through the country to the sea in order that they may release the just friends in the house.
  22. The good citizens send gifts if the poets worthy of gold write books concerning justice.
  23. Long ago you buried the unjust citizens at sea, but now you send the evil, the unjust, and the unworthy into the unattractive island.
  24. The soul of the evil citizen is unworthy of a prize. And yet you want to send gifts to evil citizens.
  25. If you do not send gold, I refuse to teach the craft the good young men.
    [present general conditional]
  26. Before the battle
    With the soldiers
    After the war
    Concerning words
    Around the houses
    With the gods
    To teach
    To have stationed
  27. The good young men
    The young men are good
    The good bridge
    The bridge is good
    The poet is beloved
  28. To the citizens, the poet is worthy to teach the young men.

Section II

The aspect isn’t always clear in the English sentence you’re given to translate, thus I have provided my preferred choice in the main line and any obvious alternative choices in the square parentheses.

  1. ἐὰν ὁ ποιητῆς γράφῃ ἀγαθὸν βιβλίον περὶ μάχης, οἱ νεανίαι λύσουσιν τὴν εἰρήνην
  2. εἰ θύσαιτε ζῷα τοῖς θεοῖς, παύσαιμεν τὸν πόλεμον ἂν
    [also possible is θύοιτε and παύσοιμεν]
  3. εἰ ἐφύλαξα τὴν νῆσον, ἐφύλαξες τὴν γέφυραν ἂν
  4. οἱ πολῖται οὐκ ἠθέλησαν πέμψαι ζῷα ἳνα οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ στρατιῶται θύοιεν τοῖς θεοῖς
    [also possible is θύσειεν and θύσαιεν]
  5. ἡ ψύχη τοῦ ἀδίκου ἀνθρώπου ούκ ἀξία τοῦ ἄθλου

Unit 5

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. Both gold and silver were sent by the citizens to the island in order that they might sacrifice to the immortal goddess in the small marketplace of the island. For the fearful war had been stopped by the goddesses.
  2. The glory of the poet sacred to the muses is immortal, since good books concerning the virtue of men and the dangers of war have been written by Homer.
  3. If the evil words of the first messenger should persuade you to destroy the peace and to be doing evil things to foreigners, they would not stop the war before the victory in battle.
  4. On account of the dangers, the male horses were being sacrificed by the foreigners before battles to the gods on the one hand, the female horses to the goddesses on the other. But the country of the foreigners was not guarded by the gods.
    [Note that the words “male” and “female” are denoted by the different definite article used with “horses”]
  5. Will you send sufficient silver to the good teacher if the brother is taught well? For he desires to be teaching the good ones.
  6. The good poet is a teacher of the citizens. For the citizens teach with words of the prophets.
  7. After the battle both the good and the evil are buried in the ground. But the glory of the good [men] is immortal.
  8. If the men on the island were harmed, they sent to the assembly in order that they might be guarded by the soldiers. For the enemies refused to stop the war.
  9. If you had been harmed by the teacher, you would not have sent gifts. For gifts were not being sent to the unjust.
  10. Not good for the horses are the stones on the plain.
  11. Now we are sending six of the soldiers into the plain in order that the bridge may be guarded.
  12. Are the poets capable/sufficient to be teaching the citizens the virtue?
  13. If the earth were not being guarded well by the soldiers, I would refuse to send messengers concerning the peace.
  14. To harm is not good, but to not be harmed is good.
  15. Contrary to the soldiers’ expectation, they were ordered to be guarding the bridge before being sent into battle.
    [the first clause had me stumped until I saw they give the definition of doxa as “expectation” on pg. 129 and para as “contrary to” on pg. 53]
  16. If the first soldiers are not stationed at the bridge, the plain is not guarded.
  17. The stones are not sufficient in battle for the soldiers.
  18. You all will be sent through the plain in order that the strangers may not destroy the peace.
  19. The virtue is sufficient both for the tall and the short.
  20. The gifts of the just [ones/men] have persuaded gods. For the just are friends to the gods.
  21. A book concerning the good life had been written by the poet.
  22. The just [one/man] will not be harmed by the unjust [one/man], but by an unjust [thing].
    [If anyone has a better suggestion regarding how to word this translation, feel free to drop a comment]
  23. To not be harming the friends is not sufficient.
  24. The just one/man ordered the citizens to not send the silver – the gift of the gods – to the houses of the unjust ones/men.
  25. If you command people contrary to justice, you do bad things.
  26. If the poet should teach the young men to be doing bad things to the people, he would be sent to the island.
  27. By leading the young men well.
    The men are not tall.
    From the temple/shrine of the goddess.
    With the hoplites.
    The god under the earth.
    In the beginning of the war.
    Men who are not good are bad.
    The things of the poets are good.

Section II

  1. τῷ θύειν ζῷα, οἱ ἂνθρωποι ἐπεπείκεσαν τοὺς θεοὺς παῦσαι πολέμους.
    [You could also use θῦσαι and παύειν]
  2. ὁ νεανίας εὖ πεπαίδευται ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ ἵνα ἡ ἀρετὴ φυλάττηται.
  3. εἰ ἐπέμφθητε ὑπὸ τῶν πολιτῶν εἰς τὴν ἱερὰν νῆσον τὴν ἱερὰν τῆς θεοῦ ἵνα οἱ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ φυλάττοιντο, οὐκ ἂν ἐτάχθητε ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ.
  4. ἄδικοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι ὐπὸ τοῖς κακοῖς.

Unit 6

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. He will station five of the soldiers beside the sea in order that the six messengers may not be hindered by the men in the plain.
  2. Let us harm the unjust women on the one hand, let us send goats and silver to the just women on the other hand.
  3. Homer, whose eyes were not guarded by the gods, taught both young and old men the art of words.
  4. Are goats being sacrificed to the gods by slaves?
  5. If you send the old men with guards five stades from the land, they will not be harmed by the bad strangers who were ordered to destroy the peace.
  6. The grace of good men is not in body but in soul.
  7. After the victory, the guards, on the one hand, were dancing; the enemies, on the other hand, whom we harmed were being guarded by the old men in the market place.
  8. If the country was being governed well, we would also be ruling the islands.
  9. If, you know, the wise should rule the country, on the one hand during the day you would be doing the business of the council and the assembly; during the night, on the other hand, you would be dancing.
  10. Let me tell you, in a battle, at least, the hope of victory is not a sufficient thing.
  11. In fact, let us, in fact destroy the democracy. For terrible things have been done by the people.
  12. If six of the dancers had danced well on the first night, animals would have been sacrificed to the goddess by the wise citizens. For dancers are friends to the gods.
  13. The young men, for whom books concerning the freedom of the ancients were written by Homer, will be stationed into battle within five days for the sake of the people.
  14. You know, Old Man, the wisdom of the unjust woman is a terrible thing.
  15. The ancients used to be ruled by good men on the one hand; the people of today, on the other hand, are slaves to those unworthy of ruling.
  16. On the one hand, the strangers were sacrificing a horse before the start of battle; the Greeks, on the other hand, did not.
  17. The fate for the body is death, but at least the soul is immortal.
  18. The guard who was sent to the island during the day prevented the slaves from harming the free women for five nights.
  19. To things of the sea are terrible to the wise men.
  20. O Brother, the bribes for which you are persuading free Greeks to be slaves to bad strangers are in fact bad.
  21. Since the war was stopped, the fear of the people was destroyed.
  22. You know, the poet is bad because books about small things have been written by him.
  23. O Friend, do not persuade good men to do unjust and bad things with long speeches.
  24. If just men ever govern, the unjust men, by whom the people are being harmed, are sent from the land.
  25. Are we to write a book concerning goats if the citizens send money?
  26. If you were ever taught by poets, [by] good men, you at least did well.
  27. Wisdom is not a small gift, in fact.
  28. According to the opinion of the old man at least, the wise men are bad.
  29. The speeches against the Greeks are unjust. And yet, you were writing long speeches during the night against the Greeks.

Section II

  1. διδασκώμεθα τῆς γε ἡμέρας ἵνα χορεύωμεν τῆς νυκτός.
  2. ὦ νεανία, εἰ τῆς χώρας πέντε ἡμέρας ἄρχοις, βλαπτοίμεθα ὑπὸ ἂν τῶν πολέμων ἡμῶν;
  3. ὦ φίλε, μὴ θάψῃς τοὺς ἀδίκους ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ. τὸ πεδίον τοι ἱερὸν τῆς θεοῦ ᾗ ἡ γῆ πεφύλακται.
  4. ἐὰν τοὺς ἵππους βλάψητε οἳ παρὰ τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐπέμφθησαν, ἓξ ἡμερῶν ὁ πολέμος παυθήσεται.
  5. οἱ νεανίαι ὑπὸ ὧν οἱ αἶγές τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι πεμφθήσονται εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν οὐκ ἐθέλουσι παιδεύεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ σοφοῦ ποιητοῦ.

Unit 7

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. If only during the night and day those good guards would guard well against the thieves so that they may not steal the people’s money.
  2. If only the other soldiers would not leave the bridge but hinder the enemies.
  3. The bad men might steal the things of the citizens. Let us guard, then, those small houses.
  4. Whoever is a slave to the body is not free, let me tell you; but whomever the soul rules is both wise and free.
  5. Whoever is left on the island will not be freed.
  6. Could we send that thing? Or are we to send the other thing?
  7. Whoever was left behind in that house, they were slaves.
  8. Starting the battle without a leader is not a good thing, at least. And yet the soldiers have refused to stop in the plain but are falling in order in battle. Let us, therefore, persuade them to stop.
  9. A leader who orders his hoplites well is in fact good. For without a leader the soldiers do not fall in order well.
  10. Let me tell you, whoever had shamefully stolen the gold, the citizens would have indicted him on a charge of theft.
  11. Those evil soldiers who left their weapons in the plain after the battle have stolen both the silver and the goats of Homer. If only we would indict them, therefore, of theft.
  12. We should obey the good teachers, at least. For they teach both art and virtue by writing. In fact, without art and virtue, young men do not fare well, let me tell you.
  13. Let us, in fact, teach the five brothers the art of the wise poet. For the citizens should send gifts, either crowns or gold, to the good poets.
  14. While the speaker, on on the one hand, writes the long speeches; the other man, on other hand, indicts.
  15. Let us stop in the shrine. For there we should sacrifice to the goddesses.
  16. Homer teaches the men, on the one hand; on the other hand, he is causing them to be taught.
  17. One man teaches some for his own benefit; another teaches others.
  18. Even thieves could be saved by rhetoric, at least, that is, the art concerning speeches, since, let me tell you, in the lawsuits those without judgment are persuaded by words on the one hand, while the wise are persuaded by deeds on the other hand.
  19. You would be doing shameful things if you would not cause the household to be taught poems.
  20. The things of war are unclear, let me tell you. So let us consult the gods concerning the present things. Are we to destroy the peace or not? For we might persuade the citizens to leave their houses.
  21. If only we may sacrifice goats to the gods, to the saviors of the citizens.
  22. If you had not been stationed in the plain, you would have saved your brothers.
  23. The honor of the good poet is not small. The price of his books in the market place is also not small.
  24. Let us stop there in order that we may stop the strangers.
  25. To the soldiers, at least, the stones in the plain are visible.

Section II

  1. εἰ γὰρ τὰ ζῴα καὶ τὸ ἀργύριον πεμφθείη εἰς τὴν νῆσον ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ. οἱ τῆς νήσου θύσαιντο ἂν τοῖς θεοῖς.
  2. εἰ γὰρ οἱ νεανίοι εὖ παιδευθεῖεν τοῖς τοῦ σοφοῦ ποιητοῦ λόγοις. φυλάξαιντό γε τοὺς πολεμίους ἄν.
  3. εἰ γὰρ οἱ θεοὶ σῴσαιεν τήν ἐκκλησίαν καὶ τὴν βουλήν. μὴ λίπωμεν τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ.
  4. οἱ αἶγες τῶν τοῦ πεδίου ἀνθρώπων ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐχθροῦ κλαπεῖεν ἄν. μὴ κωλύσητε τοὺς τοῦ πεδίου ἀνθρώπους φυλάττειν τὰ ζῷα.

Unit 8

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Note: As with a lot of the questions in H&Q, they can be translated into English in noticeably different ways (e.g. section I, question 5). Feel free to leave alternate translations in the comments.

Section I

  1. After having left the old men, we have come in order to indict all the speakers, the ones who have stolen, [on account] of bribery.
  2. Let us perform a sacrifice to the gods who saved the Athenians in that battle in order that all the gods now want to guard the democracy.
  3. If only they, since they broke the peace first, would send messengers.
  4. Those evil men, who led the good and wise teacher to death, will be harmed, you know, by the gods, due to doing shameful things.
  5. The man stealing the things of others and at the same time persuading all the young men to do evil things, even if he wasn’t sacrificing to the gods, was he harming the entire country or not?
  6. Let us [feminine, i.e. women] sacrifice since we have been saved.
  7. Since the enemy destroyed the unguarded bridge, all the hoplites were leaving their weapons in the plain so that they keep peace now, at least.
  8. In the well-guarded country the army did not rule the people, but if the citizens were harmed by the enemy, everyone, leaving the old men in the houses, were appointed by the generals in order that they might guard against those having come into the land.
  9. The books being written by the good poets will teach, in fact, women that are not slaves.
  10. Although the general had stationed the soldiers next to the sea, he nonetheless refused to lead them six stades into battle.
  11. We have left gifts for that poet, at least, who has written about virtue. For he has taught all [the women] to do good things.
  12. Having left money for those evil orators, I then led the army into the country of the Greeks not being guarded by the soldiers.
  13. Old man, virtue, you know, is the thing saving the whole country.
  14. Are not all the things having been done for the gods just?
  15. He led the soldiers into the field in order to begin a battle, of course.
  16. If you should do good things, brother, I would send during the night those animals that have been sacrificed by the old man.
  17. That shameful orator, although having sent bribes to all the unjust men and at the same time having persuaded the people to destroy the peace, nonetheless wanted to be saved by all the free men, instead of being justly harmed.
  18. Since we [women] are doing badly, let us neither keep peace nor be slaves to evilmen.
  19. After having been persuaded by bad orators, the Athenians were willing to rule all the islands for the sake of their friends, and thereupon while some (of the islands) used to send money, others who did not obey were harmed.
  20. Although having guarded the freedom of all that night, O Greeks, will you know in fact neither obey the generals who desire to save everyone nor save the country, even though you have been stationed in battle?
  21. You, shameful orator, were sent to the marketplace by the people in order to be indicted with theft.
  22. Although having left good books to his friends, the poet was buried by the young men who had been taught well and nobly.
  23. Good women, having indicted the wine thieves of theft, we will guard the houses.
  24. Now, you know, we ought to send gifts at least to the good men who have stationed the army in battle. For without virtue, the generals will destroy the democracy, harming the just [men] and doing both unjust and shameful things.
  25. They had come to the island, you know, in order to stop the war, but they desired to steal the goats and the wine, the gifts which we had sent to the goddess.
  26. Are we to prevent, in fact, that old man from teaching the young men because he stole the wine from the house?
  27. Will you come into that country for five days in order to teach the citizens rhetoric? But you might not be teaching them if you are being guarded by the old men, at least.
  28. Having been left on the island and having destroyed the democracy, they nevertheless then, after having stolen silver, were harming all the people who are well-civilized.
  29. In wine, you know, even that wise man was doing shameful things. For having left his brothers, he was dancing around the house.
  30. Having been saved in that battle, you could make a sacrifice to the goddesses who have guarded the land.
  31. The orators, at least, were persuading the general neither to lead the other army to the sea nor to guard the land, despite the hoplites being well stationed.
  32. Being taught by good men, brothers, you will indict the orators of bribery, the ones who are not obeying the good [men].
  33. If we begin a battle, we might cause the enemy to be harmed since they destroyed the peace.
  34. Young man, if you steal all the wine, you will be harmed because you did unjust things.
  35. If we harm the enemy, at least, we will then sacrifice to the goddess because she is guarding the bodies, the money, and the souls of all the citizens.
  36. If you obeyed the orator writing speeches about war, O Greeks, you would be guarding against the men who left their weapons behind in battle.

Section II

  1. καίπερ βλαπτόμενοι ὑπό τῶν νεανιῶν, οὐκ ἤθελον οἱ πολῖται τὴν δημοκρατίαν λῦσαι. ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς ἤγαγε τοὺς στρατιώτας εἰς τὴν χῶραν ὡς ἄρξων ἵνα τῆς νήσου.
  2. ἐὰν βλαφθῇ ἐν μάχῃ, οἱ πολεμίοι ἐθελήσουσι παῦσαι τὸν πόλεμον.
  3. εἰ ἐλίπομεν τοι τὸν στράτηγον καὶ πἀντας τοῦς ὁπλίτας ἐκεῖ, μή ἐπαύσαμεν τὴν μάχην ἀν.
  4. ἀγαγώμεν τὸν αἶγα κλαπέντα εἰς τὴν τῶν στρατιωτῶν οἰκίαν τῶν εἰς τὴν μάχην πεμφθέντων στρατιώτων

Unit 9

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. (a) If you should do wrong, you would be conquered.
    (b) If you do these things, you are honored.
    (c) If we should do this, we would be conquered.
    (d) If you do not do wrong, you would not be conquered.
    (e) If you do not do wrong, you would not be conquered
    (f) If we do this, we would be conquered.
  2. (a) If I were doing this, I would be honored.
    (b) If these men were wronging those men, they would not be honored.
    (c) If he should not make a sacrifice, he would not conquer.
  3. These things, Athenians, have been written about the good person/man being by the poets who taught all the citizens well and nobly, while the orators who are now persuading the people are writing the following.
  4. The water of this land is good, you know, but its people are bad.
  5. The hoplites that were left on the island by the general could be stationed either beside the bridge or above the plain.
  6. To steal the things of others is neither noble nor good. For when they do wrong, they are not honored by the citizens, if anyone is indicted of theft by the orators.
  7. If these arms here had not been sent to this island, you neither would have defeated in battle that enemy who was harming your land, nor would you now be performing sacrifices because you were saved.
  8. Although you had been taught well, you were nevertheless doing shameful things.
  9. Everyone honors those who keep the peace since they do just things.
  10. The citizens were not honoring that man because he was both stealing the things of the people and wronging everyone.
  11. Five of the dancers who were sent beside the sea into the temple of the goddess will dance in this night. For the hoplites have come, the ones, at any rate, who are good, after the victory of the barbarians in order to honor the gods.
  12. While the hope of victory is good for these men, the fear of the enemy, at any rate, is bad.
  13. The old men honored this orator, whoever, at any rate, without writing down letters, taught the young men by speeches about the affairs of the council and the assembly. For having been educated in this way they ruled all the islands.
  14. While free men are governed, others are ruled by shameful men.
  15. Having left the weapons, are we to do a bad thing to the righteous with speeches?
  16. Without water, wine impairs judgment.
  17. After having led both fine goats and other animals into the temple we shall both make sacrifices and dance all night honoring the gods because they saved the army.
  18. The hoplites were being stationed in this plain beyond the road. And further, the others were being sent out of this land to those islands in which all people were being wronged by the enemy.
  19. Even those beneath the earth have been honored by their friends. For, you know, the reputation of the good is immortal.
  20. O Greek soldiers, are we to be conquered by these slaves? For if we do not win, the democracy will be destroyed. During this day, therefore, let us neither be conquered nor let us make peace before victory.
  21. In name they were making peace, while by deed the war, at any rate, was not being stopped.
  22. Young man, you have been sent, you know, beyond the plain so that you may conquer the barbarians with the good divinity.
  23. In judgment and in rhetoric this man is capable, but in experience of the affairs of the assembly he is not.
  24. Before the battle we sacrificed those fine goats to the god who saved the people. For in this manner both the leaders and the others were saved.
  25. Brother, if only you would not do bad things to this man nor harm him in this way stealing his property.
  26. The struggle over freedom is noble, both to the men of old and to those of today. For the prize of this struggle is a good life.
  27. Are you writing the speeches of these men in water?
  28. It is in fact unreasonable neither to begin a battle nor to guard friends if you are wronged by these barbarians.
  29. If you were doing these things, you would not be conquered.
  30. You were making an attempt at least.

Section II

  1. ὦ φίλε, μὴ κακὰ ποιοίης τούτους τοὺς μικροὺς γέροντας τιμώμενος ὑπό γ’ ἐκείνων τῶν νεανιῶν τῶν ἀδίκων.
  2. ἄλογόν τοι αἰσχρὰ ποιεῖν. ὃς ἂν ἄνευ τῆς δίκης τοὺς ἄλλους ἀδικῇ, οὗτος δικαιῶς βλαβήσεται ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν.
  3. ταύτας μήτε τιμῶμεν μῆτε καλῶς ποιῶμεν, αἳ σιγῇ ἐκείνας τὰς οἰκίας πεφυλάκασιν;
  4. οἱ Ἕλληνες ἄλλα τε ζῷα καὶ τὰς αἶγας ἔθυον ταύταις ταῖς θεαῖς πρὸ ἐκείνων τῶν ἀγώνων ὅπως μὴ νικῷντο.

Unit 10

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. In the truly well-governed cities, not the people but the law is king. For all citizens, obeying the laws, do righteous things so as for the city to be saved from both dangers and fears.
  2. The poet used to show to the king’s daughter the poems that had been written about nature.
  3. O Father, the enemy was defeated by the well-born soldiers and the fortunate city was saved. For after having conquered, the general (who was sent away into the city of the Athenians after the battle) reported these things both in the city council and the assembly. He will therefore remain in the city with his friends in order to make sacrifices to the gods.
  4. If without those fortunate horsemen the hoplites were refusing to be stationed into battle beyond guarding against the enemy, the rule of the city would be truly destroyed. If only we deemed this city worthy of rule.
  5. Virtue is a good possession,you know, for the well-educated.
  6. O wise daughter, do not do wrong, having been persuaded by the speeches of this bad horseman. For if ever you should do shameful things, your mother would not indeed be honored.
  7. If only Demosthenes would write a long speech concerning the fearful sufferings in war so as for the citizens not to destroy the peace, even though they are wishing to do this. For if they should keep peace they would be saved.
  8. After leaving their goods in the houses, the prudent women were staying there beside the sea to guard against the enemy.
  9. So frightful is this suffering as for Demosthenes to wish to die. Are we ever to deem worthy of a prize this man who did shameful things?
  10. Truly happy is the woman who obeys the laws of the city and who at the same time honors both mother and father, who makes sacrifices to the gods and who has never done unjust things. For this woman, you know, is dear to gods and men that she is honored by everyone.
  11. When will the priest, the one called out from the city, sacrifice on behalf of these cities to both the father of the gods and to the land, mother of both gods and men?We consider Socrates worthy of being honored because he thoroughly taught the citizens true virtue and making the city truly happy.
  12. We consider Socrates worthy of being honored because he thoroughly taught the citizens true virtue and making the city truly happy.
  13. Am I to announce in the assembly all the sufferings of the men whom the general led out? For if I make these things clear to the whole city I would stop the war. These things, therefore, I will announce.
  14. When did the king sacrifice his daughter to the goddess with the result that he might lead the army?
  15. By the king’s not sacrificing his daughter to the goddess the war had been prevented with the result that we’re keeping the peace.
  16. Neither gold nor silver abides, but the reputation of noble men who have been taught by the poets the deeds of good men will abide.
  17. The gods are honored by the goats that have been sacrificed in the temple in order to be saving the city. For without sacrifices the gods are hostile and will call the enemies into the land so that they conquer.
  18. Since his life was about to end during that day, Socrates was showing the young men the types of virtue.
  19. To some classes of people, you know, one thing is noble, to other classes it is another thing. For all do whatever they do by law.
  20. O happy Socrates, are you showing your friends the nature of virtue? For if you show virtue well, they will indeed not do wrong, but if you should not show this well, they would do bad things. You do well when you show all the good things.
  21. If you had not been conquered before the end of the contest, you would have been thought worthy of a prize.
  22. Do you in fact call peace the end of war?
  23. To both the fathers and mothers of the soldiers that have been buried in this plain the speeches delivered by the orator about the fine reputation and the freedom that has now been saved are not sufficient.
  24. When will the sufferings of the teachers end?
  25. Because she had done shameful things, the man sent his daughter out of his sight.
  26. It is in fact good for the city for Socrates’ to be teaching the young men.
  27. Let us indict those in office of bribery since they stole the things of the people against the laws with the result that the city was conquered.
  28. Despite having stolen wine, they will not be called to justice.

Section II

  1. ὅπως θύῃ ὑπὲρ τῶν στρατιωτῶν τῶν νικησάντων τόν γε ἱερεὰ κελεύσωμεν πάντας τὰς αἶγας λιπεῖν τῇ τοῦ βασιλέως μητρὶ.
  2. τοῦτον ἄθλου ἀξιοῖς ἢ στεφάνου ὃς ἂν οὐ νικηθῇ ἐν τοῖς ἀγοῦσιν;
  3. οἱ ἱππεῖς οὕτως ἐκεδιδάχθησαν ὑπὸ τῶν γερόντων ὥστε ἀξιωθῆναι ἄθλων καὶ δώρων ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἀγοῦσιν.
  4. τῷ τὸν Σωκράτη ἐθέλειν ὑπὲρ ἀρετῆς τελευτᾶν καλῶς ποιεῖν διδασκόμεθα.
  5. οἱ τὼν στρατιωτῶν πατέρες τῶν ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἐκκληθέντων εἰς μάχην ἐτάξοντο ὥστε αἵ γε μικραὶ οἰκίαι ἐσώθησαν.

Unit 11

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. We ourselves heard the following from the same orator who has come from the island. Hear, citizens. When the murderers of this woman come to the market place after having taken the money, I will somehow indict them all with a charge of murder.
  2. Daughters, whenever you were doing shameful things for the sake of your friends, you were not honored by the prudent and all the just as you were spoken of badly.  So do just things, therefore, and be considered worthy of honor.
  3. That lucky general does whatever he does not because of experience of affairs, you know, but somehow by good luck.  So let the citizens honor him.
  4. Whenever the poets write books about both bad and foolish women who steal wine and who do shameful things, the young men, at least, do not want to guard the city’s laws.  Do not consider them in fact worthy of prizes in the contests.
  5. You somehow used to rule the people at that time according to the laws when you used to accept the speeches of the just, while now after the murder of this orator you will end your life within eight days because of your insolence.
  6. Demosthenes himself, since he was saved from danger, wanted to send during the same night a herald to his mother, ordering her to sacrifice to the savior gods after having taken both wine and animals and having called out her friends. So after the herald had announced these things, the mother sacrificed.
  7. Neither good in soul nor prudent is he who at any time while being a slave both to the love and beauty of body wants to run the affairs of the city.  For how could he rule either the other citizens or even the household itself?  If in fact this man rules the city, we will be conquered.
  8. Woman, whenever the king performs a sacrifice on behalf of the Athenian people when they are suffering bad things, do not take rocks and pelt the priests. For if you do this, you will suffer.
  9. Whenever we were stationed for battle in order to guard the city, we used to leave both our wives and daughters in the city with the old men.
  10. Hoplite, if only you would not throw away your arms.  For if you should throw those away, you would at the same time neither be saved in battle ever, nor ever be spoken of well.  Stay here, then, and be considered worthy of glory.
  11. After the herald who had come from the countryside announced these things to the soldiers, the well-born hoplites wanted to injure the horses of the barbarians.
  12. The leader of the barbarians is responsible, you know, for the victory of the Greeks.  For he in fact has not come in time to the men in the plain, although he had left the city on the same day with the result that the whole army was thoroughly defeated.  And since the army has been defeated, stop the war.
  13. Do not let him leave this old man here although he wishes to stay.  For if this man, you know, stays in the city, everyone will not want to pelt those foolish enemy with arms and rocks.
  14. You have, Socrates, welcomed both friends and enemies into your house in order to, as you say, educate them yourself about virtue itself.  But stop.
  15. After the contest on behalf of this city, having somehow left the prize of victory — a crown of gold — in the plain, you have come here wanting to be honored.
  16. To the prudent, the beauty of body is not indeed good, but the ways of the soul itself is good. For whenever the body, having been harmed by unjust men, suffers bad things, the soul of the just man is somehow saved by the gods.  And when the soul is saved, the whole human being is saved.
  17. Within five days you yourselves will hear this from the same heralds.  When we left the island, since the enemy had been conquered, the eight dancers were dancing.
  18. A guardian of both the laws and of the democracy is the man who rules the people with the help of the gods in a just manner.
  19. Since you are yourselves suffering bad things, when will you somehow throw out from the city these foolish men?  Throw them out.
  20. Hear, men, the truth from the good and just men and from the saviors of this city. While from those foolish and unjust orators who are responsible for this war you will hear speeches that are not fine.
  21. Come on, old man, listen.  Since the messengers were sent into a city by a king, all the citizens will hear, you know, about the battle.
  22. By birth, these men are good, but in their ways they are bad. For even the well-born do bad things if they have been taught badly, you know, by the orators.  Let Socrates the prudent show these things some time.
  23. Is this not insolence: always to do bad things to both one’s father and one’s very mother, stealing gold, silver and wine from the house, and neither sacrificing nor dancing to the gods?
  24. Since you persuaded the people, on account of this cause, man, stay in the city.
  25. If we should think the shameful woman worthy of something noble, would we think the prudent woman worthy of something bad or not?
  26. It is both shameful, you know, and foolish to send away one’s friends after having admitted one’s enemies into one’s house.

Section II

  1.  αὐτοὶ τὸν Δημοσθένη ἠκούετε ὅτε λόγου ἄρξαιτο.
  2. ἐπειδὰν τιμᾶται ὁ ποιητὴς ὑπὸ τῶν εὐγενῶν νεανιῶν, θυσάντων οἱ πολῖται ταῖς πάσαις μούσαις.
  3. ἐπειδὴ ὅ γε τοῦ Δημοσθένους πατὴρ τὸν δῆμον πείσαι φυλάττεσθαι τοὺς πολεμίους, τοῖς τῆς πόλεως θεοῖς ἔθυεν.  τοῦτο ἄγγειλον,  ὦ νεανία, τοῖς πολίταις.
  4. πῶς φυλαττώμεθα κακοὺς ῥήτορας καὶ ἄφρονας ποιητὰς οἵ πως πείθουσι τοὺς νεανίας ἀδικεῖν τὰς μητέρας καὶ τοὺς πατέρας;
  5. αὐτός τοι ἐκεῖ μενῶ ὅπως δέχωμαι τὸν βασιλεᾶ αὐτὸν τῷ αὐτῷ τρόπῳ.
  6. εἰ αὐτοὶ βάλοιμέν ποτε αὐτὸν τοῖς αὐτοῖς λίθοις, οὐκ ἂν βούλοιτο τὸν χρυσὸν λιπεῖν ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ.

Unit 12

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. From where were you sent into this city in order that you yourself might somehow give gifts to the nine noble writers, the interpreters of the gods? For by writing they have, I suppose, truly made clear the nature of virtue to the young men. So let them justly be honored by everyone.
  2. How am I alone to be taught, in addition to rhetoric, the art of painting by this shameful painter who has never even sacrificed to the muses?
  3. Both Homer and Demosthenes are writers who are honored, I suppose, by everyone, but while the latter is an orator, the former is a poet. Let the people, at any rate, honor them.
  4. Teach your brother, at least, writing. For without this art neither are beautiful books ever written by men called writers, nor are they spoken of well by the wise.
  5. By the Immortals, do not love the ten men at least who were giving bribes to those in office in order to lead the enemy into the land. But honor, in fact, Demosthenes since he has saved the city.
  6. Since the gods alone, saving the city, give the noble things, fear the gods and obey the laws which they make for men rather than those which men somehow make for themselves.
  7. A fine craftsman indeed is that god, the one who has made both the earth and the animals and mankind so well.
  8. Let him be called a craftsman of the city whoever justly makes laws for the citizens.
  9. The king used to make laws for those being ruled, but now the citizens who are governed in free cities make laws in their assemblies.
  10. During the first day we were standing together somewhere in the house in order to hear the speeches of wise Socrates about the nature of man.
  11. Shameful, in fact, and worthy of death by the citizens are all those bad orators, whoever, having taken bribes, sells the city to the king of the barbarians for gold or silver. So do not let them sell everyone’s houses.
  12. The wise man, at least, would never sell virtue for gold. For gold does not always endure, but the reputation of virtue is immortal.
  13. From where will the enemy come? Where are we hoplites to fall into battle order? To where do you wish to lead out the horsemen? How might the city be saved from dangers and be spoken of nobly? If only the gods always somehow give victory to those who have suffered bad things. Let the victors then stand their weapons in the temple.
  14. The speeches which we heard in the council from the barbarian interpreter are in fact unclear, but we are afraid that the war is not finished.
  15. If you do not ever prevent the wrongdoer, orator, do not do wrong with him, but obey the laws of the city.
  16. Those who in truth [love one another are true friends, you know, but those who are afraid that they may be harmed by one another are indeed not friends.
  17. Whenever the cities of the Greeks stood together for each other, we used to rule together, in fact, the barbarians then. But now we are hurting each other instead of them so as for the wise to fear that we ourselves may be ruled by them.
  18. The king did not accept, I suppose, the speeches of the priest about the sacrificing of his daughter. For since the father loved her, he did not think she deserved to die.
  19. It is good for the unjust man to pay the penalty for all the bad things that he has done.
  20. To where are we to lead out the ten heralds in order to announce to the barbarians the following: although we love peace rather than war, if you wrong our city first, we shall destroy the peace since we are being harmed.
  21. A king is dedicating these weapons to the savior gods after having won in battle.
  22. He was somehow appointing the good and the men called wise into the rule.
  23. I wanted the citizens to revolt from the Athenian empire, but since they were afraid, they neither revolted ever nor did they make speeches on behalf of freedom.
  24. The god gave a different art to different men, you know. For to Homer and to those who make verses poetics, while to Demosthenes and to others who persuade the the citizens with speeches in the assembly he gave rhetoric.

Section II

  1. ὅτε ἠκούσαμεν τοῦ ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἀγγέλου, ἐφοβούμεθα μὴ οἱ ὁπλῖται οὐκ ἄγοιεν τὰς γυναῖκας κατὰ τὴν θάλατταν.
  2. μὴ φοβοῦ μὴ οἱ θεοὶ οὐκ ἀεὶ διδῶσιν ἱκανὰ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.
  3. φοβοῦμαι μὴ ὁ κακὸς βασιλεὺς ἀδικοὺς νόμους ἀεὶ ἔθηκέ πως τοῖς ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν.
  4. διδόντων πως οἱ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ ἢ χρυσὸν ἢ ἄργυρον τοῖς στρατιώταις οὓς ἀφίσταμεν.
  5. τιθῶμεν ἀεὶ βιβλία ἐν τῇ τοῦ ῥήτορος οἰκίᾳ ὅπως διδάσκῃ τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὰ ἔπη τὰ ποιούμενα τῷ Ὁμήρῳ.

Unit 13

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. (a) Do not give gold.
    (b) Do not make laws.
    (c) We could stand here.
    (d) Let the companion come.
    (e) Sell the books.
    (f) If only these things would not happen.
    (g) Am I to stand, or run away?
    (h) Become like these men.
    (i) If only he gives silver.
    (j) Let us go to the market place.
  2. This painter is good, I suppose, with respect to his art, but shameful with respect to his ways. For he is contriving with his companions that after destroying the democracy he will rule the whole city.
  3. Having come sometime into the city, the allies from the island went immediately into the assembly so that they might persuade the rulers to make a law about the murder of foreigners.  For if they do not make this law, they, at any rate, will want to flee to another place.
  4. After the citizens went into the assembly, Euripides was bringing it about by this device that he would be honored by the foolish, but the wise did not give him and his dancers a crown.
  5. The epic poems of Homer are both wise and clear.  For these are not like the other epic poems.
  6. I wish that I would become like Aristophanes.
  7. If we are afraid that we may be defeated, we will flee to another place.
  8. The woman who stole the things of others and at the same time persuaded others to do the same things and who did not perform sacrifices to the gods and who taught young men to do wrong — was she harming the whole city or not?  So let her pay the penalty for the things she has done unjustly.
  9. Contrary to expectation in fact the following thing happened to the Greeks; the allies did not come out against the enemy.  For they were afraid that they might be defeated.
  10. In the well-governed city the rule is shared.  For the same men both rule each other and are ruled by each other.
  11. If these things happen, those suffering will learn.  For experience teaches even the foolish.
  12. Let them honor Aristophanes rather that Euripides.
  13. He will become fortunate, to whomever the gods give, of speeches, judgment, and of deeds, virtue.
  14. Did you come for this purpose, foolish people, so that you might give Euripides a crown of gold?  Do not give a prize to him, but give it to another poet.
  15. Let the walls guard for the citizens their bodies, their money and their freedom.  For without the walls, if we should be defeated, we would either end our life or we would become slaves by strangers.
  16. Whoever sells this city for silver, let the women pelt them with stones and let the women not receive them in their houses.
  17. Since we revolted from the king, would that you give, O gods, both power and victory to the men who fought the enemy on this day.
  18. The man running away from the penalty of murder was not saved by the devices of bad orators.  For the people did not like murderers.
  19. Since you have suffered at the hands of the citizens who are, on the one hand, always seizing and leading away all your animals, on the other hand, destroying all your houses, wish to fight rather than to keep peace and be harmed.
  20. Even the wise man does foolish things under the influence of wine. For wine destroys the judgment.  So do not destroy your judgment, wise man.
  21. Although the weapons have been thrown down, fight even without a shield.
  22. See to it that you become good men in this war.
  23. These soldiers are so good both in respect to their feet and hands that they have defeated the companions of the unjust orators even without shields and swords.
  24. Let him stand before the shrine and dedicate his shield to the goddess.
  25. If only the priests would sacrifice before the festival in that shrine on behalf of those men to whom the divinities did not give gold.  Give them, in fact, good things, O gods.
  26. Since we have taken the power of the sea from our fathers, will we not fight on behalf of the empire?
  27. That shameful orator after having received gifts from the king and having persuaded the citizens to make peace instead of fighting, wanted to be honored.
  28. When we stood in the plain we set up a trophy.
  29. O Greeks, having fought well then and defeated the enemy you were thereupon setting up a trophy.  But now, although you are not defeated in battle, you nevertheless obey the barbarians and throw away your freedom for the sake of money.
  30. When you used to give silver to the ruler, we used to set up a trophy.

Section II

  1. καίπερ βλαπτόμενοι, μήτε λύσαντων οἱ πολῖται τὴν δημοκρατίαν μήτε καθιστάντων βασιλέα ὡς τῆς πόλεως ἄρξοντα.
  2. ἐκεῖνος ὁ παλαιὸς βασιλεὺς τοῖς πολίταις ἀγαθοὺς νόμους ἔθηκεν. ἐμηχανήσατό τοι ὅπως ἐθέλοντες μαχέσθαι ὕπερ τῶν παίδων σώσουσι τὴν πόλιν.
  3. εἰ οὐκ ἔδοτε τοῦτον τὸν χρυσὸν τῇ αἰσχρᾷ γυναικί, ἔφυγεν ἄν ποτε εἰς τὴν αὐτὴν νῆσον μετὰ τοῦ φονέως τοῦ τῶν ἕπτα χορευτῶν.
  4. ἔλθων ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας, ἔφυγεν ὁ Εὐριπίδης μετὰ τῶν ἑταίρων πρὸς τὴν ἀλλὴν οἰκίαν. ἐφοβήθη γὰρ ἡ μήτηρ μὴ τοῖς λιθοῖς αὐτὸν βάλοιμεν.
  5. χαλεπὸς ἀφιστάσθαι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως. ἀποβάλοντες τῶν ὅπλων, πῶς μαχώμεθα στρατιώτας ἐμπείρους πολέμου.

Unit 14

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. I will begin, men, on the one hand, by showing the ignorance of Demosthenes about the common affairs of the city, then, on the other hand, I will make clear all the things that have been done unjustly by the other orators.
  2. Since the soldiers are setting up a trophy, let the general send away nine heralds into the city in order to report the victory.
  3. Give a share of the rule some time even to those fleeing in the civil strife.
  4. Friends, if you should run away from the city at once, how would you escape the notice of these guards who have been standing on the wall?
  5. Whenever some think themselves worthy to rule others, the ones being ruled always want to rise up against those ruling.  For obeying others is noble and just, you know, by convention, while being a slave to foolish people is bad and shameful by nature.
  6. After the people revolted, the king, having handed over the rule to his son and having fled from the land, without somehow the citizens noticing, went to another land in order to stay and end his life there.
  7. Demosthenes happened to be displaying his rhetoric in the market place when heralds entered intending to announce the victory of all the barbarians.
  8. This man who has destroyed both the democracy and the laws, and who has put the city into a state of civil strife, deserves in fact to suffer bad things.
  9. Men of Athens, endure even these dangers and fight on behalf of everyone’s freedom.
  10. When Euripides approached, the well-born girls happened, I suppose, to be dancing to the goddess.
  11. Taking a shield in one hand, a sword in the other, mother of Euripides, go out of the house in order to fight in fact all the other women.
  12. Children, if the enemy enters the city center before the Athenians, we will no longer stay here.  For obeying barbarians is not easy you know.
  13. Unjust men always rejoice, I suppose, in doing bad things to men who are good in respect of their soul.
  14. If that teacher does not educate the students about virtue, the democracy will be destroyed.
  15. Although the enemy was defeated, we were nevertheless not making a festival to the god since we were afraid that even other horsemen might still come into the land without our soldiers noticing.
  16. Ask Socrates about the present civil strife.  For he has been standing in the middle of the market place.
  17. Since all the others are keeping peace with each other, let the general of the Athenians stop the hoplites from fighting.
  18. If your brother should not teach his boys, have him taught to teach them.
  19. After having taken gold from the enemy, the orators were persuading the people to throw out of the city not only those who had done wrong, but also those who had governed both well and prudently and who had fought on behalf of everyone.
  20. Those who enjoy wronging men will themselves justly suffer at some time terrible things by them.
  21. Since the companions are contriving that they will free Socrates, we are standing somewhere near the wall.
  22. Having abandoned the land, the ancients used to migrate easily to other lands, and they were all not even called Greek.
  23. Display now, in fact, your rhetoric, good youth.  For you beat the other students in asking the teacher about virtue.
  24. The orators happen to be doing a demonstration.
  25. Young men, neither steal wine from that house nor harm the women.
  26. The things of friends are in common.
  27. Did you not cease from fighting?  Cease now, you ignoramuses.
  28. You shameful orator, your taking bribes is not unnoticed by the people at least.
  29. The man who rejoices in good things will obtain good things.

Section II

  1. καίπερ ἐθέλει ὁ βασιλεὺς παραδιδόναι πως τὴν πόλιν τοῖς πολεμίοις, οἱ νεανίαι πείσονται τοῖς στρατηγοῖς καὶ μενοῦσιν ἐν μέσῳ τῷ πεδίῳ ὡς μαχούμενοι ὑπὲρ τοῦ δήμου.
  2. ἔτυχον ἄκουσας τῶν ῥητόρων ἐρωτώντων τοὺς ἀγγέλους περὶ τῶν ἱππέων πεμφθέντων εἰς ταύτην τὴν χώραν.
  3. θυσιῶν ἀγαγόντων τῶν ἱερέων πᾶσι τοῖς θεοῖς, οἱ πολεμίοι, νικήθεντες ἐν μάχῃ, ἐκείνης τῆς νυκτὸς ἐν σιγῇ φεύγοντες τοὺς ὁπλίτας ἔλαθον.
  4. χαίρομεν ἀκούοντες τοῦ γε Σωκράτους διδάσκοντος τοὺς πολίτας περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς.
  5. ἐρχομένων τῶν στρατιώτων εἰς τὴν πόλιν, φύγετε.

Unit 15

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. Surely, foolish is he who, when given something good from his friends, does not take it.
  2. You might do a shameful thing unnoticed by others, but not by yourself. So do not do such a thing.
  3. What will you do after you have captured the city? Why are you asking me? For the general might order us either to guard the houses or to seize both money and animals.
  4. Socrates was of such a sort as for all the wise and prudent to honor him. For he used to follow the laws, perform sacrifices to the gods and ask the citizens about virtue?
  5. Instead of virtue and honor, foolish men used to choose money. Why was Socrates not able to persuade them to choose something good? You, at least, friend, choose things of this sort.
  6. My boy, be truly of such a sort as your father was.
  7. The handsome and ignorant young man fell in love with himself when he saw himself in some water and was not able to go away.  After five days he died on account of his love himself.  All who love themselves die in some manner in fact.
  8. Let us become of such a sort as everyone in fact honors, such as the general who has saved the city.
  9. If only we would always have the sort of victory prizes as our fathers won.
  10. After we followed Socrates into the market, we heard him asking the craftsmen and the poets about the arts.
  11. My daughter, if some shameful old man follows you out of the market place, do not be afraid.  For since all the gods guard young girls, he could not harm you.
  12. It is possible for the man who wants to call to justice the man who has stolen the things of the gods.  Indict Demosthenes, then, orator.
  13. Truly foolish is he who, not ruling himself, wants to rule others.
  14. The teachers, at least, although perceiving the ignorance of the citizens, will not be able to teach them.
  15. Let us send, therefore, our slaves to your city in order to announce the news to your people.
  16. I, at least, do not think those who have not won prizes worthy of honor; on the other hand, let the others foolishly want to honor them.
  17. Contrary, at least, to my judgment, I was not chosen a ruler. For the ignorant always, I suppose, choose the unworthy.
  18. What has happened, Socrates, that you are here? For surely you do not happen to have some lawsuit?
  19. When she saw some friend in the road, she stopped following her mother.
  20. I, too, you know, would want to become your student. For you alone are able to show me the path leading to virtue.
  21. The men who were carrying swords and shields out of the country into the city were seen by the guards who were stationed in front of the walls.
  22. I, you know, in the market place saw your brother, who did not see me.
  23. What, in fact, will you come bringing into our house? For we have enough.
  24. Euripides somehow surpasses in wisdom the other poets. For the Muse herself used to teach him in order to show us the characters of human beings. Hear, then, some speech of his.
  25. There is a certain young man in the road in front of the house who wants to ask you something. So be asked by him.
  26. It is surely not always useful to teach young men rhetoric. For if ever they do something bad, they are able to persuade us not to take a punishment.
  27. I will, you know, show you the benefits for us in capturing that city. For when the benefits have been shown, thereupon everyone will want to fight.
  28. Let us carry the stones through the plain in order to encompass a wall around the city.
  29. Whatever kinds of things in fact anyone does, such things also will he suffer from us.
  30. Are you not wise?  Be wise.
  31. Since we have business of such a sort, let the orators be good.

Section II

  1. καίπερ ἀδικηθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν ξένων, ὅμως ἐθέλετε εἰρήνην ἄγειν.  ἀλλὰ ἐὰν ἐκεῖνοι ἔλθωσιν εἰς τὴν ἡμετέραν χώραν, μάχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῆς ἡμετέρας ἐλευθερίας.
  2. ὃς ἂν τοὺς ἄλλους βλάπτῃ ἑαυτὸν δὴ τῷ ὄντι βλάπτει.  βλάπτων γὰρ τοὺς ἄλλους αὐτὸς κακὸς γίγνεται ὥστε μὴ τιμηθῆναι ὑπὸ τῶν ἑταίρων.
  3. τίνα τρόπον οἷός τ΄ ἐστί τις νῦν ἄλλους διδάσκειν τὴν ἀρετήν; οὐδέ γε Σωκράτης, ὃς διαφέρει πάντων τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὴν ἀρετήν, οἷός τ΄ ἦν τοῦτο ποιεῖν.
  4. τοιαῦταί εἰσιν αἱ μάχαι οἷας πάντες οἱ στρατιῶται φοβοῦνται.
  5. τίς οὕτως ἄφρων ἐστὶ ὥστε μὴ πειθέσθαι τοῖς θεοῖς; οἱ μὴ πειθόμενοι (οἳ ἂν μὴ πείθωνται) τοῖς θεοῖς δίκην διδόασι θανάτου.
  6. ἐάν ποτέ τίς τί μοί γε πέμπῃ, θύσω τοῖς θεοῖς.

Unit 16

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. You believe that Socrates at least suffered many bad things.
  2. They heard that some poet would teach the young men.
  3. We said that we would never be slaves to men.
  4. We assert that those without moderation will betray the city.
  5. Each one said that he would board that ship in the harbor.
  6. You, by Zeus, announced to me that many base and foolish men were banished from the city in the civil strife.
  7. If only neither Zeus nor the other divinities would save those who have betrayed the people.
  8. I, at least, believed that the king was going up into his city.
  9. Do not say that there is no Zeus.
  10. Are we to say that the wise alone are happy?
  11. (a) They perceived that the hoplites were doing wrong.
    (b) The hoplites perceived that they themselves were doing wrong.
  12. You, surely, told us that while Socrates had neither gold nor silver, his well-born students had much gold and money.
  13. What sorts of things has he done?  For whatever sort of thing anyone does, he will be of that sort with respect to his soul.
  14. We hear that you are betraying our city and are presently about to take many bribes from the Spartans.  For your evil doings do not escape us.
  15. We went down to the sea so that we might see the ships of the barbarians.
  16. The man who has stolen the wine said that he would never pay the penalty.
  17. Men of Athens, if you deem Socrates worthy of death, the wise will never believe that you did the just thing.
  18. In what way could we recognize clearly the nature of moderation?  For if we know this we will also know ourselves well.
  19. Did you hear Socrates saying that it is hard for a human being to know himself?
  20. A certain base man was saying that although he had been banished from the city in the civil strife at that time, he at least would not be banished by the rulers today; for they would take certain bribes.
  21. Throw out of the theater the poet who said that we chose bad generals.  Or are you not afraid that he who says such things may harm us all?
  22. Men, since the city is still in danger, let us neither cease from fighting nor, obeying such an orator, betray ourselves.
  23. Of whatever kind the citizens might be, the city too would be of such a kind.
  24. He says that they will send their own ships to the island.
  25. (a)You said that I would do badly.
    (b) You said that you would do badly.
    (c) You will say that these women will donoble things.
    (d) You will say that these women did noble things.
  26. Surely, if anyone should ever follow you, you would be able to rule the people after having destroyed the regime.
  27. I chose to say a speech in the present contest of rhetoric since I believed that neither gold nor silver but only the glory that is about to come to be from the speech itself would be a sufficient prize for me.
  28. –Do you understand, boy, the things said?
    –Certainly.  For you are saying, I suppose, that while it is possible for everyone to act nobly, many do bad things on account of their ignorance.
    –Well done.  In what way, in fact, could the latter become happy?
    –According to your judgment, if the base men know the nature of moderation they will somehow stop doing wrong.
  29. (a) He announced that this man was fleeing from the city.
    (b) He announced that this man had fled from the city.
    (c) He announced that this man has fled from the city.
    (d) He announced that this man would flee from the city.
  30. Know thyself.
  31. O Zeus and gods, who could be glad to hear that Socrates was deemed worthy of death by some base men and that within five days his life would end?
  32. You yourselves, orators, used to show that while democracy is a good regime, many of the ancient kings ruled the people neither badly nor basely.

Section II

  1. νὴ τοὺς θεοὺς ὑμεῖς γ’ ἐλέγετε, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, ὅτι πάντες οἱ Ἕλληνες τοὺς ξένους νικήσοιεν καὶ τρόπαιον ἀναθησεῖεν.
  2. a) ἐλέγετε ὅτι (ἡμεῖς) αὐτοὶ νικήσοιμεν.
    b) ἐνομίζετε ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς νικήσειν.
    c)ἠκούσατε ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς νικήσοντας.
  3. a) λέγει ὅτι ἔπεμψα τὴν ναῦν.
    b) ἐμέ φησι πέμψαι τὴν ναῦν.
    c) ἀγγέλει ἐμὲ πέμψαντα τὴν ναῦν.
  4. οἷα ζῷα θῦσαι βούλῃ, τοιαῦτα πέμψομεν.

Unit 17

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. Father, stop stealing the wine even though it is sweeter than the others.  For you do wrong when you steal the things of others.
  2. Brothers, stop setting up trophies in front of the big house.
  3. Men of Athens, let us prevent the most hateful enemy from marching against the great walls.
  4. Old man, let us contrive that, not doing wrong, we will become as just as possible.
  5. Dearest ones, never believe that the more unjust men can harm more just men.
  6. Young man, contrive that you will some time become happier than me at least by far.
  7. Since the young men were asking many things, the old men were not able to go away.
  8. Let the young men not ask many things from the wisest of the old men.
  9. Untie me, comrade.  For I did not harm you.
  10. Soldier, what do you know about the victory of the Greeks?  For I say that the Greeks are luckier than the barbarians.
  11. Priest, take much money from the house and free the two daughters.
  12. The really wise man wants rather to be good than to seem good.  For the man who wants such things is wiser by far than others.
  13. Let no one who is a slave to the body think that he is somehow able to rule others.
  14. Whatever sort the teacher is, of such a sort will the students also be.
  15. We ourselves want to take as many things as we give.
  16. The mother was holding her daughter by the hand.
  17. Let the soldiers be stationed somewhere by the bridge.
  18. Let the slaves carry the big and heavy rocks.
  19. Having fought well, rightly be thought worthy of the prize.  For while fighting is pleasant, winning is the most pleasant of all.
  20. Let them pelt those who are about to approach with much heavier stones.
  21. Most shameful one, if only you were not now going into the country.
  22. On the fourth day, having captured the city you will march across the plain.
  23. Were three or four men seen by the guards?
  24. To which one did you sell the sweet wine?  To the mother or the daughter?
  25. How many books can you hold?  I cannot hold as many as my brother.
  26. How many fools were honoring Euripides on that day!
  27. Great is the power of the two brothers.
  28. Because of their horses being fast, we were not able to catch them.
  29. The opinion of the most foolish is worth nothing to any of the citizens.
  30. Let us give gifts, in fact, to such men as we deem worthy of prizes.
  31. If the water overflows somehow onto the land, the houses will be destroyed.
  32. The swift messenger will on the third day say to the citizens that the enemy, having been defeated through their own error, ran away.
  33. The small man has much property.

Section II

  1. εἰ γὰρ οἱ ἡμέτεροι εὐγενέστατοι στρατιῶται νῦν γε οἷοί τ΄ ἦσαν οὕτω καλῶς μαχέσθαι ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους ὥστε τὴν ἡμέτεραν πόλιν σωζέσθαι.  ἀξιώτερα γὰρ σωζέσθαι ἡ ἡμέτερα τῆς αὐτῶν.
  2. πότερον ἀπέλθειν ἢ μένειν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ κελεύσετε τοὺς ταχεῖς ἱππέας;
  3. μηδεὶς κακὸς τιμάσθω μηδενὶ τρόπῳ ὑπὸ μηδενὸς τῶν πολιτῶν.
  4. ὦ νεανία, παιδεύου τὸν σὸν νεώτερον ἀδελφὸν τὴν ῥητορικὴν ἐκείνῳ τῷ σοφωτέρῳ διδασκάλῳ.
  5. παύου νομίζων (νομίζουσα) ἀεὶ οἷόν τ’ ἐσέσθαι νικᾶν.
  6. ὅσους ἂν ὁρῶ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ, τοσούτους παιδεύσω.

Unit 18

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. Whom did you kill, most foolish daughter?
  2. I asked my smaller daughter whom she killed.
  3. Ask your daughter whom she will kill.
  4. What kind of very unjust men will plot against the democracy?
  5. They were not able to learn in any way what kind of men would plot against the democracy.
  6. They announced that Socrates was about to die within three days.
  7. (a) You say that Socrates is dying.
    (b) Say that Socrates is dying.
  8. (a) You will hear that Socrates has died.
    (b) You will hear Socrates dying.
  9. (a) We are asking how many people you are sending away. (Present Indicative)
    (b) We were asking how many people you were sending away. (Present Optative)
    (c) We are asking how many people you sent away. (Aorist Indicative)
    (d) We were asking how many people you sent away. (Aorist Optative/Indicative)
  10. Send away Demosthenes, at least, villain.
  11. Let them send away the man who plotted against the people at that time, even though he is more hated.
  12. Hold the sharper sword in your hand.
  13. Whatever sort of citizens we are, of such a sort is our city.
  14. (a) Let him stand here so that he may fight.
    (b) Stand up the trophy here.
  15. Give these heavy weapons to three of the hoplites.
  16. (a) Stop this man from plotting against the people.
    (b) Stop this man who is plotting against the people.
    (c) Stop plotting against the people.
  17. We somehow enjoy putting the sweetest wine on the tables of the gods.
  18. Man, you cannot understand either words spoken truly and clearly or lies.
  19. Go to the council in order to deliberate about war.
  20. Let us in fact go and not delay still so that we may not let go of the opportune moment.
  21. I used to hear you know that one table in that festival was holy to Zeus.
  22. You were asking in what way we were neglected.
  23. I, at least, act in whatever way you want.
  24. In judgment they seemed to be sharper than the others, whoever advised the people at the right time about the future.
  25. Go wherever you want.
  26. Since the affairs of the city are going well, let the orators stop speaking.
  27. Wherever we are, there we shall stay.
  28. (a) If only we may be happy.
    (b) If only we were happy.
    (c) If only we may win.
    (d) If only we were winning.
    (e) If only we had won.
  29. Are we to seek somehow whether democracy is a good thing or not?
  30. We asked whether you did not want to destroy the democracy.
  31. I was asking whether you were telling lies or the truth.
  32. Let no one tell a lie, but let each say everything correctly.

Section II

  1. ἠρωτήσατε τὸν Δημοσθένη εἰ, τῶν πολεμίων μελλόντων φεύγειν, ἐθέλοι πέμψαι τρεῖς ναῦς ταχείας εἰς τὴν νῆσον.
  2. ἀποκτείνωμεν πάντας γε τοὺς ἐπιβουλεύσαντας τῷ δήμῳ;
  3. μὴ λεγέτω τοῖς συμβουλευμένοις αὐτῷ ὅτι οὐ πιστεύει τοῖς δυοῖν στρατηγοῖς (τοῖν στρατηγοῖν)
  4. οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤκουσαν τὸν Σωκράτη λέγοντα, ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ ἐτελεύτησεν, ὅτι ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ, δικαία οὖσα, οὔποτε πείσοιτο πείσεται ούδὲν κακόν.
  5. ὅταν τοὺς ἱερέας λύῃ, δέξῃ πάσας τὰς τίμας ὧν σεαυτὸν ἀξιοῖς.

Unit 19

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. I know that I am better than my mother by a long way.
  2. I deny that that woman is worse than her mother.
  3. I know well in fact that the more beautiful women are happier than those who do not have freedom.
  4. If perhaps some very bad man should ask you whether you will betray the city, what will you say to him?  For you understand the affairs of the city.
  5. Since the plague has befallen the city, let us sacrifice as quickly as possible.
  6. It is not, in fact, on account of not having been taught by very noble teachers but on account of not being able to learn anything that these three young men act most foolishly.
  7. We will act most prudently as long as we are ashamed before the better men.
  8. He had come to the island four days later than his brother.  For the brother is much faster than him.
  9. He died three days earlier, not understanding what he suffered.
  10. The city honors those who have died on behalf of our freedom, since they are not the least.  For who, being rather bad, could throw away his life in this way?
  11. Honor rather those more experienced than yourself, even if they be few.
  12. The more of us wise women there should be, the more easily we would rule such a people.
  13. Let us always obey those whom both the assembly and the council appointed.
  14. You surely knew when they would sacrifice the goat.
  15. Her friend advising her, she has come into this temple in order to ask the god about the disease.
  16. He will somehow enter the city last of all those whom you sent.
  17. Did you use to think that your swords were sharper than ours by far?
  18. It is not possible for you to become wiser faster than us.
  19. You said that it was not possible for us to become wiser.
  20. Since he was younger than his brother it was not possible for Demosthenes to rule the family house.
  21. Do not trust those more ignorant than yourselves.  For they are worse.
  22. We knew clearly that the men in the market place were rather shameful to all the citizens whom we were having educated.
  23. We were going into the house in which  the rather shameful men were.
  24. Since the soldiers have run away, I wish we would set up a trophy somewhere.
  25. I could not let go however many men we capture until they pay money.
  26. The Athenians, I suppose, were winning before the plague fell upon them.
  27. He will always carry the prizes until someone younger enters the contests.
  28. Do not, for the sake of profit, make the weaker argument stronger, O worst of men.  For you will be the cause of the greatest evils.
  29. What greater evil is there for man, in fact, than pain?
  30. You know that the earlier teachers were more wise than those of today.
  31. We are aware that we ourselves are equal to our fathers.
  32. Some used to say that Socrates believed in new gods.
  33. Let us find all those horsemen whom we sent away.
  34. Do you believe that your brother is better than Socrates?

Section II

  1. τῶν νεωτέρων στρατιωτῶν μαχεσαμένων ὡς αἴσχιστα, ὁ κάλλιστος τῶν γερόντων φυλλάξει πως τὴν γέφυραν μέχρι ἂν οἱ πολέμιοι ἀπέλθων.
  2. ἄρ’ οἶσθα τὸν Σωκράτη οὐ κακίονα χείρωνα τοῦ Ἀριστοφάνους;
  3. ἄρ’ ᾔδησθα τοὺς Ἕλληνας νομιζόντας Δία μέγιστον εἶναι τῶν θεῶν;
  4. εἰ ὁ τῶν Ἀθηναίων στρατηγὸς ἤγαγε τὸν στρατὸν εἰς τὸ πεδίον πρίν τοὺς πολεμίους ἔλθειν, ἡ ἡμετέρα λύπη ἐλάττων ἂν ἐγένετο.
  5. μενῶ μέχρι ἕως ἂν παύσῃς διδάσκων.

Unit 20

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. (a) The democracy must not be destroyed by anyone.
    (b) No one must destroy the democracy.
  2. (a) I must do these things.
    (b) These things must be done by me.
  3. Men of Athens, you must rule all the Greeks.
  4. No base man, you know, must be honored by anyone.
  5. We learned from the students that Socrates, the best teacher of all by far, had died.
  6. Those who are better ought not to obey those who are worse at all.
  7. (a) She appeared to be the best.
    (b) It was apparent that she was best.
  8. Men, send away those who have not fought and kill those who have plotted against ourselves.
  9. It seemed best to everyone to drive out the worst men from the land.
  10. Young man, you must trust those who have not erred.
  11.  Of painters, I suppose, some are worse while others are much better.
  12. Orator, you, at least, must not make the weaker argument stronger.
  13.  He does not know if these things seem best to the rulers.
  14. Most of the laws which we set down are in place also now. For even then we understood how one ought to rule a city of this kind.
  15. We shall, of course, perform a sacrifice of all the animals  that you yourself send.
  16. When it was necessary to fight, you foolish hoplite, you were running away.
  17. Must I listen to these ignoramuses?  Answer, brother.
  18. A king, of course, must be obeyed.  For a king is stronger.
  19. If only we were always turning the natures of the boys toward the good.
  20. Whoever appears to the better men as not turning his mind to shameful things, such a sort will most easily rule the city.
  21. You do not need to give gold to this orator, brother.  For I will give him not a little money.
  22. You old men, at least, ought to be as wise as possible.
  23. One must not destroy the established laws.
  24. You were saying, I suppose, that the just is this: that the stronger rules and has more than the weaker.
  25. In that battle the Athenians lacked both experience and moderation.
  26. Those who do not have sense are many, while the wise are few.
  27. If I was aware that I had done the most shameful things, I would not be rejoicing with my friends staying behind in the city.
  28. All those whom the king sent away have run away to the harbor in order to board somehow some ships.  For they had a fear that they might die very quickly at the hand of those men whom you also know, I suppose.
  29. The worse kind of people used to seek only this: from where there will be more money out of less.
  30. You were afraid that the Spartan ships were faster than yours.
  31. After the allies had arrived, the dead were laid down in the plain.
  32. This man seemed to me to seem to be wise both to many other men and most of all to himself, but not to be wise.
  33. If you do not discover the truth, you ignorant women, you will not seek to become as good as possible.  For now you make the most shameful mistakes.
  34. Let us now, in fact, turn ourselves over to greater things.  For we understand all these things.

Section II

  1. (a) οἱ πολέμιοι νικητέοι εἰσὶν ἡμῖν.
    (b) ἡμῖν τοὺς πολεμίους νικητέον ἐστίν.
    (c) δεῖ ἡμᾶς τοὺς πολεμίους νικῆσαι.
  2. ἐπυθόμην ὅσον ἀμείνονα ποιητὴν ὄντα Ἀριστοφάνη τοῦ Εὐριπίδου.
  3. δεῖ τούτους τοὺς ῥήτορας ὅτι κάλλιστα λέγειν ὥστε πείθειν (πεῖσαι) τοὺς ἀκουόντας.

20 responses

  1. I’m a 34-year-old husband, father, and lawyer who decided to learn ancient Greek through the Hansen book. Thank you for taking the time to post your answers! They really help me figure out whether I’m translating the exercises correctly. Sincerely, brandon hale

  2. May your hands be strengthened and your soul encouraged, in
    your endeavour to provide answers for the exercises in Hansen and
    Quinn. It would be a help for those who are studying Greek on their
    own. I have been thinking on either the Hansen and Quinn book and
    the Luschnig book. I am thinking to work through both. I like the
    Hansen and Quinn book, which I have. I also like what I have seen
    of the Luschnig book, it has many details about Greek that are
    quite interesting.

  3. This site is perfect! I also use this book, and I want to check/proof my work, for Chapters 5, 6, 7, etc… Can someone continue to post the remaining chapters?

  4. Great work! I hope you keep it going. I want to use this text after I’m finished with Pharr. A key would be brilliant.

  5. Missing your online guidance in Unit 5!!! I’m at a loss for what’s going on in drill 3, number 19, for instance. Hope you have time to post the drills someday!

    • Teachers can come up with their own questions to ask their students if they so desire.

      This answer key is for the autodidact who is trudging through this book on their own without a teacher.

      • to hell with you—you think there’s a reason the authors and the press didn’t supply answers? you think they are going to type out their own questions in Greek? loser.

    • I am just finishing up my first semester of graduate work towards an MA in ancient Greek and Roman studies. This Web site helped me get through the first eight chapters of Hansen & Quinn over a six week period of 10-hour study sessions seven days a week last summer. As a result, I was able to skip the beginning Greek course and go straight into Continuing, where (if I don’t flub the final next week!) I’ll probably make an A-/B+. Cheaters will always find ways to cheat, but this site won’t help them on quizzes and exams, especially if their teachers make up the assessment questions. More important, motivated students serious about learning on their own will gain so much by having this Web site as a guide! I say, THANKS, DIGLOTTING!!!

    • In response to Shamer’s comment: to make a buck, Hansen and Quinn decided to sell their book to the public. I bought mine on Amazon.com. Now that it’s in the marketplace, folks are well within their legal and moral rights to publish their answers to their hearts’ content. If H and Q want secrecy, they can pass out practice questions to enrolled students in class.

  6. I am so grateful for your dedication. I will definitely gift you, and strongly encourage others who are using the answers to consider doing the same, even a small gift — whatever is reasonable. I think a lot of us would pay a fair price at a bookstore for such a key.

  7. Thank you for kindly providing the much needed information. Anyone attempting Greek without checking their answers is setting themselves up for very bad habits.

  8. Thanks for creating these answer keys, sent you a book as a (first) thank-you. I’m just starting the book. A couple of questions if you don’t mind: (1) What font/typeset did you use to create the Greek characters in PDF? They are much nicer than the standard font available on my Mac. (2) Unit 1, Section 1, Question 17, the plural given as the answer appears to be the dative, not the accusative (?). I’ve just started so I could easily be wrong about this.

    • Yes, it should be λόγους (thanks). For the Greek font I think I just used the Greek alphabet available in “Character Map” in the Times New Roman font.

  9. Thank you so much for this helpful information. I was really disappointed the book didn’t come with an answer key.

  10. Just wanted to thank you for all the help thus far!!! This has been a huge help as a study aid for my classes. Now that my class is past chapter 10 I don’t know what I’ll do without your good insight! I’ve always used answer keys as study aids

  11. Thanks you so much for working on this! Do you know of any sources to check my work on units 10-20 (including the multiple “Review” segments)?

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