Unit 3

Answers to the ‘Drill’ and ‘Exercise’ questions of Unit 3 of Greek: An Intensive Course by Hansen and Quinn. If you spot an error then please leave a comment below.

Note that the correct use of “may” and “might” is important in these answers. If the verb is a subjunctive the author wants you to translate it as “may”, but if it is an optative then you are to translate it as “might”.

Also, remember that the tense of a subjunctive or an optative (as well as an infinitive) does not indicate the actual time (e.g. the past) but only the aspect. The present tense shows progressive or repeated aspect (e.g. “that you may be educating”), while the aorist tense shows simple aspect (e.g. “that you may educate”), and the perfect tense shows completed aspect (e.g. “to have educated”).

Answers to ‘Drill’ Questions

Section I

  1. We have sent. Perfect indicative. Singular form is πέπομφα.
  2. They had sent. Pluperfect indicative. Singular form is ἐπεπόμφει(ν).
  3. You were sending. Imperfect indicative. Plural form is ἐπέμπετε.
  4. He has sent. Perfect indicative. Plural form is πεπόμφασι(ν).
  5. I sent. Aorist indicative. Plural form is ἐπέμψαμεν.
  6. He had sent. Pluperfect indicative. Plural form is ἐπεπόμφεσαν.
  7. To have sent. Perfect infinitive.
  8. He will send. Future indicative. Plural form is πέμψουσι(ν).
  9. He may be sending. Present subjunctive. Plural form is πέμπωσι(ν).
  10. You may send. Aorist subjunctive. Plural form is πέμψητε.
  11. You will send. Future indicative. Plural form is πέμψετε.
  12. We may be sending. Present subjunctive. Singular form is πέμπω.
  13. They will send. Future indicative. Singular form is πέμψει.
  14. They may send. Aorist subjunctive. Singular form is πέμψῃ.
  15. (a) I shall send. Future indicative. Plural form is πέμψομεν; and (b) I may send. Aorist subjunctive. Plural form is πέμψωμεν.
  16. I might be sending. Present optative. Plural form is πέμποιμεν.
  17. He might send. Aorist optative. Plural form is πέμψειαν.
  18. (a) To send. Aorist infinitive; and (b) He might send. Aorist optative. Plural form is πέμψαιεν.
  19. They might be sending. Present optative. Singular form is πέμποι.
  20. To be sending. Present infinitive.
  21. I had sent. Pluperfect indicative. Plural form is ἐπεπόμφεμεν.

Section II

  1. You send gold in order that we may be sending books. [present subjunctive active]
  2. You send gold in order that we may send books. [aorist subjunctive active]
  3. You will send gold in order that we may send books. [aorist subjunctive active]
  4. You sent gold in order that we might send books. [aorist optative active]
  5. You have released the brothers in order that he may send gifts. [aorist subjunctive active]
  6. You had released the brothers in order that he might send gifts. [aorist optative active]
  7. You were releasing the brothers in order that he might send gifts. [aorist optative active]
  8. He was educating the brothers in order that you might send gold. [aorist optative active]
  9. He educated the brothers in order that you might send gold. [aorist optative active]
  10. In order that you may be sending gold, he will educate the brothers. [present subjunctive active]
  11. We will not send gold in order that he may not send animals. [aorist subjunctive active]
  12. We were not sending gold in order that they might not be sending animals. [present optative active]

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Section I

  1. The people on the roads will sacrifice to the gods in order that they may stop the war.
  2. The people are sacrificing to the goddesses in order that they may stop the war.
  3. The strangers from the marketplace sent messengers in order that they might destroy the peace.
  4. I was sending messengers around the island in order that you [plural] might not be destroying the peace.
  5. They have sent gifts in order that we may free Homer.
  6. In fact [or “of course”], you [plural] are commanding Homer to write a book about the war in order that you may teach the brothers well. For they will guard the country.
  7. He sent gold to the assembly and the council in order that they might not dissolve the friendship.
  8. On the one hand, the gods did not guard Homer’s eyes; on the other hand, they have guarded well the books concerning the virtue of the men.
  9. On the one hand, by a word they had destroyed the peace; on the other hand, by a deed, they had not.
  10. Will you write five books concerning the sacrifices to the gods in order that we may send gifts to the gods?
  11. On account of the will of the gods we had stopped the war, but we did not send crowns to the marketplace.
  12. Since we guarded the messengers, who were from the strangers, they did not destroy the democracy.
  13. Has Homer educated the brothers with the skill concerning words in order that they may guard well virtue in battles?
  14. On account of [their] virtue we had sent crowns, prizes of victory, to the friends.
  15. Since we did not sacrifice to the god before the war, now, both on the island and in the marketplace, we have sacrificed in order that he may send virtue into souls.
  16. The people sent even the stranger out of the country into the island in order that he might not destroy the peace. For he had written six books concerning war.
  17. O Homer, on the one hand, you send a book instead of gold to the brother; on the other hand, to the god, a crown instead of an animal.
  18. You were sacrificing to the gods in order that they might teach the strangers, in the island, concerning virtue.
  19. He commanded the brothers to stop the war before their victory.
  20. The strangers will send gifts either to the council or to the assembly in order that you may not destroy the friendship.
  21. The books of Homer have taught the strangers.
  22. From the marketplace.
    At the side of the brother of Homer.
    Through the house.
    Beside Homer.
    Through the island.
    To have sacrificed.
    To have stopped.

Section II

  1. λελύκαμεν τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἵνα μη λύσῃς τὴν εἰρήνην.
    [Note that the present subjunctive λύῃς could be used instead of the aorist subjunctive, but I think the simple aspect of the aorist makes more sense here than the repeated/progressive aspect of the present. Also note that I translated “you” as 2nd-person singular instead of 2nd-person plural (λύητε/λύσητε), though this fine too considering the question is ambiguous in this regard]
  2. ἀλλὰ ἐπεπόμφης ἆθλα τῷ Ὁμήρῳ ἵνα παιδεύοι τὸν ἀδελφόν.
    [Note that the aorist optative παιδεύσαι could be used instead of the present optative, but I prefer the progressive/repeated aspect of the latter]
  3. ἐγεγράφειν βιβλίον περὶ εἰρήνης ἳνα  παύσαιμεν πολέμους.

Also, for each of these three answers ὡς or ὅπως can be used instead of ἵνα.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s