Unit 4

Answers to the ‘Drill’ and ‘Exercise’ questions of Unit 4 of Greek: An Intensive Course by Hansen and Quinn. If you spot an error then please leave a comment below.

Answers to ‘Drill’ Questions

Note: ὦ is used with the vocative (see pg. 31).

Section I

  1. ταῖς θαλάτταις (feminine, dative, plural); “to/for/with/by the seas”.
    singular: τῇ θαλάττῃ
  2. τὴν θάλατταν (feminine, accusative, singular); “the sea” as a direct object (i.e. “the sea” receives the action of a verb).
    plural: τάς θαλλάττας
  3. (a) τῆς γεφύρας (feminine, genitive, singular), “of the bridge” (e.g. “the steel of the bridge”).
    plural: τῶν γεφυρῶν
    (b) τάς γεφύρας (feminine, accusative, plural), “the bridges” as a direct object.
    singular: τὴν γέφυραν
  4. (a) ἡ θάλαττα (feminine, nominative, singular), “sea” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    plural: αἱ θάλατται
    (b) ὦ θάλαττα (feminine, vocative, singular), “sea” being addressed directly (e.g. “O Sea, why dost thou thrash about?”).
    plural: ὦ θάλατται
  5. ὁ πολίτης (masculine, nominative, singular), “citizen” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    plural: οἱ πολῖται
  6. ὦ πολῖτα (masculine, vocative, singular), “citizen” being addressed directly.
    plural: ὦ πολῖται
  7. τὸν νεανίαν (masculine, accusative, singular), “the young man” as a direct object.
    plural: τοὺς νεανίας
  8. τοῦ πολίτου (masculine, genitive, singular), “of the citizen”.
    plural: τῶν πολιτῶν
  9. τῷ ποιητῇ (masculine, dative, singular), “to/for/with/by the poet”.
    plural: τοῖς πολίταις
  10. τοῖς νεανίαις (masculine, dative, plural), “to/for/with/by the young men”.
    singular: τῷ νεανίᾳ
  11. (a) οἱ πολῖται (masculine, nominative, plural), “citizens” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    singular: ὁ πολίτης
    (b) ὦ πολῖται (masculine, vocative, plural), “citizens” being addressed directly.
    singular: ὦ πολῖτα
  12. τοῦ νεανίου (masculine, genitive, singular), “of the young man”.
    plural: τῶν νεανιῶν
  13. τοὺς ποιητάς (masculine, accusative, plural), “the poets” as a direct object.
    singular: τὸν ποιητήν
  14. (a) οἱ νεανίαι (masculine, nominative, plural), “the young men” as the subject or predicate nominative.
    singular: ὁ νεανίας
    (b) ὦ νεανίαι (masculine, vocative, plural), “the young men” being addressed directly.
    singular: ὦ νεανία
  15. ὦ νεανία (masculine, vocative, singular), “the young man” being addressed directly.
    plural: ὦ νεανίαι

Section II

  1. The evil brothers.
    Singular: ὁ κάκος ἄδελφος
  2. The evil citizens.
    Singular: ὁ κάκος πολίτης
  3. To (for/with/by) the evil souls.
    Singular: τῇ κακὴ ψυχῇ
  4. To (for/with/by) the unjust souls.
    Singular: τῇ ἀδίκῳ ψυχῇ
  5. The poets, the evil ones. [The evil poets]
    Singular: τὸν ποιητὴν τὸν ἄδικον
  6. A soul, the worthy one. [The worthy soul]
    Plural: ψύχαί αί ἄξιαι
  7. To (for/with/by) the unjust citizen.
    Plural: τοῖς ἀδίκοις πολίταις
  8. Of the worthy souls.
    Singular: τῆς ἀξίας ψυχῆς
  9. The works, the evil ones. [The evil work]
    Singular: τὸ ἔργον τὸ κακὸν
  10. To (for/with/by) the unjust young man.
    Plural: τοῖς ἀδίκοις νεανίαις
  11. The worthy sea.
    Plural: τάς ἀξίας θαλάττας
  12. The bridge, the bad one. [The bad bridge]
    Plural: αἱ γέφυραι αἱ κακαί

Section III

  1. The evil brother
  2. The evil brother
  3. The brother is evil.
  4. The brother is evil.
  5. The evil brother
  6. The unjust soul of the brother
  7. The soul of the brother is unjust.
  8. The soul of the brother is unjust.
  9. The soul is worthy.
  10. The soul is worthy.
  11. The unjust work
  12. The work is unjust.

Section IV

  1. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If she wins (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: She will celebrate (future indicative).
  2. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he should win (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: He would celebrate (optative + ἄν).
  3. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If she wins (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: She celebrates (present indicative).
  4. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he won (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: He celebrated (imperfect indicative).
  5. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he were winning (εἰ + imperfect indicative).
    Apodosis: He would be celebrating (imperfect indicative + ἄν).
  6. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If she had won (εἰ + aorist indicative).
    Apodosis: She would have celebrated (aorist indicative + ἄν).
  7. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If he is late (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: He loses an hour’s pay (present indicative).
  8. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If a letter was wrongly addressed (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: I returned it (imperfect indicative).
  9. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If you do that (ἐάν + subjunctive).
    Apodosis: You will be sorry (future indicative).
  10. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If you were having fun (εἰ + imperfect indicative).
    Apodosis: You would not be so anxious to leave (imperfect indicative + ἄν).
  11. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If I had finished on time (εἰ + aorist indicative).
    Apodosis: I would have gotten a bonus (aorist indicative + ἄν).
  12. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    Protasis: If it should snow tomorrow (εἰ + optative).
    Apodosis: What would you do (optative + ἄν).

Section V

  1. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If you sacrifice to the gods, they will send gifts.
  2. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If you should sacrifice to the gods, they would send gifts.
  3. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    If you sacrificed to the gods, they sent gifts.
  4. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    If you sacrifice to the gods, they send gifts.
  5. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If you had sacrificed to the gods, they would have sent gifts.
  6. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If you were sacrificing to the gods, they would be sending gifts.
  7. Future More Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If I do not guard the brothers, they will destroy the democracy.
  8. Present Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If I were guarding the brothers, they would not be destroying the democracy.
  9. Present General Conditional Sentence.
    If I do not guard the brothers, they destroy the democracy.
  10. Past Contrafactual Conditional Sentence.
    If I had not guarded the brothers, they would have destroyed the democracy.
  11. Future Less Vivid Conditional Sentence.
    If I should not guard the brothers, they would destroy the democracy.
  12. Past General Conditional Sentence.
    If I did not guard the brothers, they destroyed the democracy.
    [Remember that the present optative only conveys progressive/repeated aspect, not present time. Thus, the answer could be rendered as follows: If I did not (ever) guard the brothers, they (always) destroyed the democracy].

Note: even though questions 11 and 12 both have the exact same protasis given in Greek, due to the differing apodoses given, it is translated differently in English.

Answers to ‘Exercise’ Questions

Note: on page 102 the authors say that ουκ εθελω can be translated as “refuse” and so I have chosen that option in the answers below.

Section I

  1. If the muses teach the good poet well, then he will write a fine book concerning the sacrifices in the marketplace.
  2. On the one hand, the battle is bad to the soldiers; on the other hand, victory is good.
  3. O friend soldier, if you were guarding the land with the just men, the young men from the island would not be destroying the peace.
  4. Have you stationed the find and good hoplites at the bridge in order that they may guard the country after the battle?
  5. If the poets wrote books concerning justice, to the muses, the goddesses of poets, that they sacrificed. For the poets are just.
  6. If you should destroy the democracy, O bad citizens, you would destroy even the peace in the beautiful islands.
  7. If you had sent the soldiers into the battle with the weapons, we would have stationed the young men in the marketplace in order that they might guard the houses.
  8. On the one hand, the soul of the young man is just; on the other hand, the soul of the soldier is unjust.
  9. I sacrifice to the beautiful goddess, if you send a good animal.
  10. If we send bad men into war, we will bury good men.
  11. The good and just citizens are worthy of rule. For they want to stop the bad war.
  12. The battle is the fate of the soldier.
  13. In order that he might write a good book, the just poet was sacrificing good animals to the gods.
  14. If the beloved Homer had refused to be sacrificing to the goddess, he would not have written a good book concerning men of virtue.
  15. O friends, if on account of the will of the god we destroy the democracy, we will send the citizens unworthy of rule out of the country to the strangers on the island.
  16. Good, of course, is the day of victory to the men.
  17. If the works of the gods should teach the young man in the house, he would refuse to send weapons to the unjust soldiers.
  18. If the god commanded the beloved poet to be teaching the young men, he sacrificed to the muse.
  19. Since the six messengers from the strangers sent gifts to the council and the assembly, the people refuse to station the good hoplites for battle.
  20. O young man, if you were sending gold or a crown to the hoplites worthy of a prize, they would not be destroying the peace.
  21. If you do not stop the battle, we will send good hoplites through the country to the sea in order that they may release the just friends in the house.
  22. The good citizens send gifts if the poets worthy of gold write books concerning justice.
  23. Long ago you buried the unjust citizens at sea, but now you send the evil, the unjust, and the unworthy into the unattractive island.
  24. The soul of the evil citizen is unworthy of a prize. And yet you want to send gifts to evil citizens.
  25. If you do not send gold, I refuse to teach the craft the good young men.
    [present general conditional]
  26. Before the battle
    With the soldiers
    After the war
    Concerning words
    Around the houses
    With the gods
    To teach
    To have stationed
  27. The good young men
    The young men are good
    The good bridge
    The bridge is good
    The poet is beloved
  28. To the citizens, the poet is worthy to teach the young men.

Section II

The aspect isn’t always clear in the English sentence you’re given to translate, thus I have provided my preferred choice in the main line and any obvious alternative choices in the square parentheses.

  1. ἐὰν ὁ ποιητῆς γράφῃ ἀγαθὸν βιβλίον περὶ μάχης, οἱ νεανίαι λύσουσιν τὴν εἰρήνην
  2. εἰ θύσαιτε ζῷα τοῖς θεοῖς, παύσαιμεν τὸν πόλεμον ἂν
    [also possible is θύοιτε and παύσοιμεν]
  3. εἰ ἐφύλαξα τὴν νῆσον, ἐφύλαξες τὴν γέφυραν ἂν
  4. οἱ πολῖται οὐκ ἠθέλησαν πέμψαι ζῷα ἳνα οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ στρατιῶται θύοιεν τοῖς θεοῖς
    [also possible is θύσειεν and θύσαιεν]
  5. ἡ ψύχη τοῦ ἀδίκου ἀνθρώπου ούκ ἀξία τοῦ ἄθλου

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